The Galero (plural Galeri ), also known as the prelate or a cardinal's hat, is a large, very shallow, scarlet for cardinals hat with a wide brim, hanging from the each side fifteen tassels ( fiocchi ). He has the heraldic sign of the dignity of Cardinal, is in the broadest sense also called provided with tassels green, violet and black flat hat in the coats of arms of other church dignitaries.
The Galero originated from a flat Pilgrim hat with a wide margin, which takes place in ecclesiastical heraldry in different colors and different number of puffs as a general sign of dignity clergy of the Roman Catholic Church use.
After the quarrel between Pope and the Emperor, Pope Innocent IV fled before Frederick II to Lyon. Christmas 1245 continued the Pope 13 newly appointed cardinals at the Council of Lyon for the first time a red silk hat on. The prelate hats are common in the 13th century. Only since 1833, under the pontificate of Pope Gregory XVI. they determine the rank of the dignitary uniformly according to a predetermined system.
Originally Galero was handed over to the Cardinals in their ceremonial, appointed by the Pope. After her death, he was, if diocesan bishops were suspended in their cathedral over her grave and as long as leave it there until her body was completely fall to dust. He served so well as a reminder of the transience of earthly existence. In its function as a grave ornament of Galero still finds occasional use. The Galero as the actual headdress was founded in 1969 by Paul VI. abolished by Benedict XVI. approved for the of " Summorum Pontificum " regulated area again.
From Galero the smaller so-called Roman Hat ( Cappello romano ) or Saturno is to distinguish which satisfies no ceremonial duties, but only practical purposes, such as sun protection. He is for all clergy, with the exception of the Pope (white or red ) black lace or with different colored hatbands.
Although the Galero was actually worn by cardinals, he nevertheless found its way into the heraldry of other church dignitaries. Depending on the rank of the wearer's coat of arms, he appears as a different colored hat with a large number of different side drooping tassels surrounding the blazon.
The Galero in the arms of cardinals is scarlet with a total of 30 tassels to five rows (1,2,3,4,5 ), the patriarch of green, also with 30 tassels, the archbishops of green with 20 tassels in four rows ( 1.2, 3,4). The green Galero also in the coats of arms of bishops and abbots of territorial abbeys, however, has only twice six tassels. In addition to red and green, the colors still be purple for apostolic proto- notary as well as the honorary prelate of the Pope (Papal house prelate ) and black for abbots, Monsignori, the chaplain of the pope, general and archbishop's vicars, each with twelve tassels in three rows (1,2, 3). Canons, canons and canons lead six tassels in two rows ( 1.2 ) on the emblem, deans, priors and Upper four tassels in two rows (1,1) and two tassels priest in a row to the crest of the ranks in the Church honorary hierarchy to describe clearly. The coat of arms de facto rarely used a priest, for example, shows a black Galero with two laterally drooping tassels ( fiocchi ).
An archbishop (due to double cross ), while metropolitans (because pallium ) Coat of Arms
Coat of arms of a bishop
Coat of arms of an abbot
Coat of arms of a canon, or canon Domkapitulars
Coat of arms of a priest