The Gascony ( gascognisch Gasconha [ gaskuɲɔ / gaskuɲə ] ) is a historic province in south-western France. The native language of Gascony is the Gaskognische, a subspecies of Occitan.
The Gascony includes the present departments of Landes, Gers and Hautes -Pyrénées and parts of the Pyrénées -Atlantiques, Lot- et- Garonne, Tarn -et -Garonne, Haute -Garonne, Gironde and Ariège, to the regions of Aquitaine and Midi -Pyrenees. include The Val d' Aran, even if it is in Spain is, historically and linguistically Gascony. In the historic landscape, the birthplace of D' Artagnan finds literary figure ( in Castel More at Lupiac ) the novelist Alexandre Dumas.
The main economic activities are:
- Wine growing and processing ( specialties: Armagnac, Arrufiat )
- Tourism (many castles, abbeys, also seaside resorts )
- Forest management
The main cities of the Gascogne:
History of Gascony
The Gascogne was inhabited in antiquity by the Aquitaniern that unlike the other inhabitants of Gaul not Celtic, but probably one with the Basque language related to languages .
With the Roman conquest of Gaul later Gascony was still distinguished as Aquitaine from the rest of Gaul. The division into provinces, the name Aquitania was extended up to the Loire, the area south of the Garonne separated later than Provincia Novempopulana it. As part of the gradual Romanization of the area developed here, the Gascon language, a strongly influenced by the Basque subspecies of the Occitan language.
Later Gascony belonged to the kingdom of the Visigoths Tolosan ( Visigoths ). 507, after the battle of Vouillé, the Frankish empire stretched with displacement of the Visigoths from to the Pyrenees, but won no firm control over the area. In the aftermath Basques emigrated from the area south of the Pyrenees to the north and were able to colonize more foothills up to the Garonne. The area was now the name of Gascogne (of vasco = " Basque "), but remained largely in its albeit heavily influenced Basque Romance language.
After a period of Frankish rule Dukes ( Bladast 581, Austro Forest 587 ) accepted the Gascons in the year 603, the sovereignty of the Merovingian. Nevertheless, had King Dagobert I. 635 it with a Burgundian army again force under his power. Again, a Frankish duke was appointed. The duchy was divided by 660 in the Aquitaine of the Dukes Felix and lupus.
After the victory of Charles Martel 732 in Tours and Poitiers, on the beginning of the 8th century had penetrated far north Moorish conquerors of Spain the land belonged to the Pyrenees back to Franks, although Pepin the Short and Carloman I. considerable efforts against the permanent uprisings of the Basques had to do. Charlemagne finally subjugated 769-770 Gascony and covered the land with Frankish counts and garrisons - which at the Battle of Roncesvalles became a sensitive Frankish defeat 778. Charlemagne subdued the Gascons again, but further revolts took then from 812 the de facto independence of Gascony within the kingdom of Aquitaine. King Pepin I appointed a 819 Count Aznar Sanche († 836 ), who operate largely independent policy, and mostly supported Charles the Bald against the resident closer Pippin. His brother Sanche Sanche Mitarrat occurs from 848 to Duke, however, supported temporarily Pepin II, but then turned against him and gave him 852 to Charles the Bald from.
In the 10th century, under the Duke Garcia Sanchez le gate, the Gascony extended to up to Bordeaux, which is also the capital (after Eauze and the 7th century, too ) has now, but had in the South to Navarre and Aragón give up and limit his rule over a number of counties and vice counties along the Pyrenees strong.
After the extinction of the old Duke family Odo took over from Aquitaine in 1032 as heir to the duchy, he was succeeded in 1040 by his nephew Bernard II Tumapaler, Count of Armagnac, but had 1052 hand over power to Odo's half-brother Guido Godfrey of Aquitaine, which no descendant of the ancient Duke family was more. The fate of Gascony followed from now on the Aquitania. Lords of the land were the two marriages of the heiress Eleanor of Aquitaine until Louis VII and then the Plantagenets. Under King John Lackland, the country was divided into the supporters of the land sunken King Alfonso VIII of Castile on the one hand and of the fighting against the Albigensian Crusade, Count Raymond VI. of Toulouse. The Treaty of Paris ( 1259 ) with Henry III. of England left the Gascogne the English, which by the contract. Brétigny of ( 1360 ) with Edward III has been confirmed by England.
However, the policy of the Black Prince, Edward of Woodstock at 1360 alienated the land to the English, so that the army of Charles V of France was easy to retake Gascony, until the British rule in 1380 on two separate from each other territories (Bordeaux, Medoc, Blaye, Castillon, Rions and book the one hand, Bayonne, Dax and Saint -Sever the other hand) was limited. It is also known the Battle of Castillon on 17 July in 1453., You asked the crucial confrontation in favor of France at the end of the Hundred Years War between Henry VI. of England and Charles VII of France dar. The Hundred Years War lasted from 1339 to 1453. Use the victories of Charles VII in 1442 and Jean de Dunois ' in 1451, the final expulsion of the English brought from Gascony.
During the formation of the department during the French Revolution, the Gascogne was dissolved as a political entity and replaced by the present-day département. With the creation and strengthening of the growing regions of France since 1972, Gascogne was to the south of the Aquitaine region.
- Jean -Baptiste Adam Berg ( a detective, fictional character of Fred Vargas )
- Guillaume Arrufat des Forges (cardinal and nephew of Pope Clement V. )
- Charles d' Artagnan de Batz- Castelmore (officer of the Musketeers of the Guard and template for the main character in the novel The Three Musketeers )
- Louis Barthou ( politician)
- François Bayrou ( politician)
- Jean -Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, as Charles XIV John King of Sweden
- Pierre Bourdieu ( sociologist )
- Michel Camdessus ( economist )
- Pope Clement V.
- Philippe Douste- Blazy ( politician)
- Jacques Duclos ( politician)
- Armand Fallières, ( Politician, President 1906-1913 )
- Théophile Gautier ( poet )
- Henry IV ( king of France)
- Francis Jammes ( poet )
- Alain Juppé ( politician)
- Jean Laborde ( Industrial )
- Jean -Luc Lagardère ( Industrial )
- Jean Lannes ( general under Napoléon Bonaparte )
- Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
- Vincent de Paul ( Christian saint )
- Bernadette Soubirous ( Christian saint )
- Jules Supervielle ( poet )
- Étienne de Vignolles called La Hire ( = Jack of Hearts ), Maréchal of France