Pobeda (Russian победа, the Russian word for victory ) was a Soviet passenger cars, manufactured in the GAZ factory ( Molotov works ) after the Second World War under the designation M-20 with elegantly sloping stern and an SV four-cylinder engine.
He was characterized by robustness, with the exception of the valves.
The design followed the taste of the 1940s and is very similar to the Chevrolet Fleetline Aero Sedan. When you configure the chassis and drive components, Soviet engineers based on the 1939 Opel Kapitän. This was regarded at the time as one of the most technically advanced cars.
The government contract to develop a new car received the Gorkier automobile factory in February 1943. First drafts of the Soviet artist W. Brodsky from 1943 show the novel for its time pontoon body. The design of the vehicle was for the young designer and form designer Benjamin Samoilov.
Initially, the development under the project name was GAZ- M-25 with the working title " Rodina " (home ), and later he moved to Number 20 Originally a six-and a four-cylinder engine were provided, but ultimately fully developed only the four-cylinder. This resulted in the essential inadequacy of Pobeda, the underpowered, a problem which is already the predecessor GAZ -M -1 ( four-cylinder ) and had GAZ -11- 73, on fighting ( modernized M- 1 with 6 cylinders ).
The test vehicles differed from the series. So they had, for example, is visibly a three-part grille and backward -opening rear doors ( was picked up later in the GAZ -12 ZiM again). Series production began on June 28, 1946, the name of the car was changed in view of the output of the Second World War by " Rodina " to " Pobeda ". During the production of the first series constructive inadequacies in the vehicles and in the production process occur. Never before had been produced in such large quantities in the Soviet Union a car. 1948, the production was stopped in order to remedy the deficiencies. In 1949 the production of the modernized Pobeda was resumed, previously produced vehicles were launched in the workshops and in part to the factory to repair defects.
When production starts the Pobeda was quite a modern vehicle, but later showed the lack of functionality of its body shape. For this reason, the National Institute for the automotive industry developed in the USSR in 1948 a Pobeda with a notchback body; Two prototypes were built. Other body styles were planned, such as a pickup truck and a stretch limo. Of the latter, a prototype was built, which, in turn, to the development of the GAZ -12 " ZiM " ( Zavod imeni Molotowa, Molotov work ) led.
1950 was the Pobeda a new part synchronized transmission, which was a departure from the steering circuit. In 1955, he was subjected to a comprehensive modernization. Lots of minor changes the design of the radiator grille has been adapted to the taste of the 1950s and (now motor power 52 hp) installed a new carburetor. Since 1951 has been working on a successor to the Pobeda - working title GAZ- M-21 - Pobeda II was the name of the project later in " Zvezda " (Star) and then changed to " Volga". Its production began in 1956, the Pobeda was built in parallel until 1958. It emerged 235 997 copies.
In the Republic of Poland about 250,000 copies were manufactured under license under the name Warszawa 1951-1973.
More Pobeda were assembled from CKD sets delivered in North Korea, a series production was not there, however.
1958 4677 piece all-wheel passenger car GAZ -M -72 were built for the military; in principle, a GAZ -69 with Pobeda body. For the sensationally: a four-wheel drive with car comfort.
The drag coefficient of the Pobeda is due to its streamlined shape 0.34 - equivalent to the 1994 Opel Corsa.
The Pobeda was the first Soviet car with " electrical helpers " as a internal fan.
In the first models can take place thanks to steering wheel gearshift and continuous bench seat forward up to 3 people.
The engine of the Pobeda ( 2.1 L, 50-52 hp) found in several Soviet vehicles use - so in the GAZ -52, GAZ -12 variants of the " ZiM ", and in the first series of the famous GAZ -69 and in the first 2000 copies of the GAZ -M -21 " Volga". This variant is a rare collectors copy today. The engine is compatible with a fuel knock resistance of about 66 octane.
The acceleration from 0 to 100 km / h takes place in 45 seconds, in city traffic, the Pobeda can, however, move lively, because the motor pulls even at low engine speeds.
In Moscow there are already since 2005 a prototype for the Pobeda S600. Crucial to the model designation was the M120 -6 0.0 -liter engine from Mercedes -Benz, of which the prototype is first driven. Mass production is not planned.