Genetic relationship (linguistics)
As genetically related is called in linguistics, languages , which go back to a common proto-language. In addition, the term genetically common in linguistics, a class of issues and problems concerning certain aspects of the formation or origin of a language. Genetically related languages we group to a language family, or more generally to a genetic unit. These are defined using the characteristic of the common innovations (for example, in phonology, word formation, morphology ).
Evidence that two or more languages are genetically related to each other, is considered paid if the languages have sufficiently many common traits and the following two possible reasons for the similarities can be sufficiently excluded:
- The similarities are mutually created in each language independent.
- The similarities are caused by language contact between the considered languages or by the contact of the considered languages to a third language.
The question of when the alternative causes are sufficiently excluded, it is an object of the linguistic discussion.
Since the question of the monophyly of the languages of the world is still unclear, there is no way to prove that two languages are not genetically related.
Necessary to determine the concept of genetic relatedness in linguistics from the concept of genetic relatedness in biology, in the special case in anthropology or ethnology: The speakers of genetically related languages do not even ethnological ( biological- genetic) be related. As an example of the English language may be used: Not every native English speakers come from around the direct line from the Anglo-Saxons.
The creoles can also be not grasp the concepts of genetic relatedness. They are examined by a separate sub-department of linguistics, Kreolistik.
Much like the creoles also the most planned languages difficult or impossible to classify genetically leave, although one usually knows their origin precisely.