Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini ( born December 22, 1858 in Lucca, † November 29, 1924 in Brussels) was an Italian composer of the fin de siècle.
Giacomo Puccini was born into a family of musicians. His father, Michele Puccini was head of the town chapel of Lucca, organist at the cathedral and composer of operas and exhibitions, his grandfather Domenico Puccini also a composer of orchestral works and piano pieces.
In 1876 Giacomo Puccini wrote a symphonic prelude. He attended a performance of the opera Aida by Giuseppe Verdi, who impressed him greatly in Pisa. In the fall of 1880 he went to Milan, where he was able to enroll a scholarship at the Conservatory. His teacher was Amilcare Ponchielli. Puccini's audit work in 1883 was the Capriccio Sinfonico, from which he later used parts for the beginning of his opera La Bohème.
On 31 May 1884 he made his debut at the Teatro Dal Verme in Milan with his first opera Le Villi, for which he earned great success with the public and the critics. After a long history of his opera Edgar was premiered on April 21, 1889 at La Scala, but without much success. Four years later, on February 1, 1893 was the premiere of the opera Manon Lescaut at the Teatro Regio in Turin with great success instead. Also in this theater, the opera La Bohème premiered on 1st February 1896, was conductor Arturo Toscanini. On 14 January 1900, the premiere of the opera Tosca was held in Rome at the Teatro Costanzi.
In 1904, Puccini married his girlfriend Elvira Bonturi, with whom he already has a son, Antonio (also Tonio or Anton; † February 21, 1946, born December 23, 1886) had. The world premiere of his opera Madama Butterfly on February 17, 1904 was an extraordinary failure. After a revision among others by his friend and colleague Alfred Brüggemann, the opera was performed again three months later at the Teatro Grande in Brescia and now enthusiastically received.
With La Fanciulla del West on December 10, 1910, he experienced his glittering debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. Conductor was Arturo Toscanini, the male lead sang Enrico Caruso, the part of Minnie Emmy Destinn. On December 14, 1918, a triptych ( Il trittico ) summarized one-act opera Il tabarro, Suor Angelica and Gianni Schicchi was first performed at the Metropolitan Opera.
In 1884, Puccini first visited Torre del Lago. In 1891 he chose Torre del Lago to his place of residence. In 1900 he bought a house and then moved to Viareggio 1921.
From the year 1919 to 1922 he stayed in the town of Orbetello in the Maremma, Tuscany, Italy, where he an old observation tower, now called Torre Puccini, bought on the beach of Tagliata from the period of Spanish domination and permanently inhabited. Here, just a few meters from the Tyrrhenian Sea, he devoted himself to composing his last opera Turandot, which he left unfinished. The passionate smokers died on November 29, 1924, a few days after a neck surgery for cancer of the larynx, in a Brussels hospital. The memorial speech at the funeral in the Cathedral of Milan held the " Duce " Mussolini personally. Turandot was premiered on April 25, 1926 at La Scala under the direction of Arturo Toscanini in the unfinished version. In the following performances the opera was performed with the completed by Franco Alfano designed by the composer conclusion.
The artistic works of Giacomo Puccini extended from 1884 until 1924. In these forty years created twelve operas. The enormous success of the works of Puccini, who still began the composer's lifetime, continues to this day. The tomb of Puccini and his wife is in his house in Torre del Lago. The Italian State has Puccini's birthplace in Lucca, which now houses a museum, also awarded the ABCs of Gioachino Rossini and Giuseppe Verdi, with the European Heritage Label.
- Le Villi. Opera - ballo ( Act 1 ). Libretto by Ferdinando Fontana. UA May 31, 1884 Milan (Teatro dal Verme ) Revised: December 26, 1884 UA Turin (Teatro Regio)
- Revised: September 5, 1892 UA Lucca (Teatro del Giglio )
- Second revised version: January 28, 1892 UA Ferrara (Teatro Comunale )
- 3 Revised: UA July 8, 1905 Buenos Aires (Teatro Colón )
- Revised: May 28, 1904 UA Brescia (Teatro Grande)
- Second revised version: UA July 10, 1905 London ( Royal Opera House)
- 3 Revised: December 28, 1905 UA Paris (Opéra -Comique )
- Suor Angelica (the jacket). Libretto: Giuseppe Adami
- Suor Angelica ( Sister Angelica ). Libretto: Giovacchino Forzano
- Gianni Schicchi. Libretto: Giovacchino Forzano
- Expanded version of Franco Alfano: Premiere 1926 ( 2nd performance after UA) Milan (Teatro alla Scala)
- Expanded version of Luciano Berio: Premiere August 7, 2002 Salzburg ( Grosses Festspielhaus )