Giuliano Amato ( born May 13, 1938 in Turin ) is an Italian politician. He was from 1992 to 1993 and from 2000 to 2001 the Italian Prime Minister. In the second Prodi government, he served as Minister of the Interior (2006 to 2008). Since 2013 he is a judge of the Constitutional Court.
Education and early political career
Amato studied law at the University of Pisa and the Law School of Columbia University. In addition to his studies at the University of Pisa, where he graduated at the Constitutionalists Carlo Lavagna, Amato was a pupil of the former Collegio Medico - Giuridico (nowadays Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna ). He pursued then a further academic career and was from 1975 professor of constitutional law at the University La Sapienza in Rome.
Amato had joined in 1958, the Italian Socialist Party. He took early various political and social tasks, including as head of the legal department in the Ministry of Finance ( late 60s ) and end of the 70 in various government commissions. Short term he also advised the European Commission.
From 1983 to 1994 Amato took the Socialists in the Chamber of Deputies. Between 1983 and 1987 he was Under Secretary of State in Prime Minister Bettino Craxi, then from 1987 to 1989 Treasury Secretary until 1988, Deputy Prime Minister. He was Deputy Secretary-General of the Socialist Party in 1989.
First term as Prime Minister
From June 1992 to April 1993 was Italian Prime Minister Giuliano Amato (1992 managing for a few days Foreign Minister ). The government's work was difficult from the beginning. Amato pursued a rigid austerity policy, increased the retirement age and taxes, and drove the privatization of state enterprises ahead. The Washington Post quoted him in 1992 with the following words:
In this period also was the involvement of a large part of Italy's political class, especially the Christian Democrats and the Socialists, uncovered in corruption cases. Although Amato's personal integrity was never doubted also numerous investigations were targeted against members of his government.
In April 1993, President Scalfaro therefore appointed the Central Bank boss Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, the new prime minister.
Mid-90s, second term as Prime Minister
Giuliano Amato then took over from 1994 to 1997, the direction of the Italian Competition Authority and the government of Massimo D' Alema 1998-2000 several ministerial posts, including for institutional reforms and, for the second time, the Ministry of the Treasury. However, higher consecrations, as the state presidency or the presidency of the International Monetary Fund, were denied him, even if his suitability for these positions hardly anyone denied.
In April 2000, Massimo D' Alema stepped back because of defeats in regional elections and Giuliano Amato again took over the post of prime minister. Even if the disunity of its 12 -party coalition blocked much of the balance sheet as at the end of his term of office was quite good: a growth of 2.8%, moderate inflation and a debt of only 1.5 % of GDP ( which the Stability Pact clear was observed ).
Already in September 2000, Amato had announced not to run for the parliamentary elections in May next year, 2001, he took over for the last few days after the election once again the State Department. The left olive alliance chose Francesco Rutelli as the leading candidate, but lost the election against Silvio Berlusconi.
In the 2001 election Amato was also elected to the Senate and tried in the following years - so far unsuccessfully - to the establishment of a moderate reform party. In addition, he was from 2002 to Vice-President of the European Convention, which drafted the European Constitution. After the failure of the European Constitution as a result of the referenda in France and the Netherlands, he led the so-called Amato Group. This informal group of European politicians edited a proposal that took over the essential elements of the Constitutional Treaty and was based on the Treaty of Lisbon.
From May 2006 to May 2008 and Giuliano Amato, Italian Interior Minister in the cabinet of Romano Prodi. In November 2011, he was traded as Foreign Minister in the Government Monti.
On February 21, 2012 Giuliano Amato was named as President of the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna in Pisa. On September 12, 2013 appointed President Giorgio Napolitano Amato as Judge of the Constitutional Court.