Gorani language

Spoken in

Indo-European languages

  • Gorani



Gorani or Gurani (Kurdish / Gurani: Hewramî ) is a northwestern Iranian language that forms the genetic subgroup Zaza - Gorani together with the Zazaki. Gorani is spoken in Iraq and Iran of about 500,000 people. Many speakers of this language include the religious community of the Ahl -e Haqq and see themselves as Kurds.


The name Gurani, which is an invention of Western linguists for Hewramî, the speaker does not know himself. They call their language Machu ( dt: I say ), KORDI or hewramî. The term Goran / Guran is ambiguous; for one, it is a name for a farmer or a detribalisierten Kurds from the lower classes, on the other hand it refers to a widespread in Kurdistan tribe, also recalls the word Gorani, which is in Kurdish for " song" or " song ".

Classification of the Gorani

The following classification describes the genetic position of the Gorani within the north-western Iranian languages ​​, also in relation to Kurdish. The presentation also contains the dialect -geographical structure of languages ​​Zazaki and Gorani. For a full view of the Iranian languages ​​and their classification provides the item Iranian languages.

Classification of the Northwest Iranian - dialects of Zaza and Gorani

  • Nordwestiranisch 24 languages ​​, 31 million speakers Medisch: Medisch † ( altiranisch )
  • Parthian: Parthian: † ( mitteliranisch )
  • Caspian Gilaki - Mazanderani: Gilaki ( 1.3 million ), Mazanderani ( 2.2 million ), Gurgani †
  • Semnani: Semnani, Sangisari, Sorchei, Lasgerdi ( together 50 thousand )
  • Talysh: Talysh (1 million )
  • Azari: Iranian- Azari ( " Southern Tati " ) (220 thousand )
  • Kurdish Kurmanji ( Northwest Kurdish ) ( 15-20 million )
  • Sorani ( Central Kurdish, Kurdish ) (4 million )
  • Südkurdisch (3 million )
  • Zaza (2-3 million ) Northern dialects ( Alevi dialects ): Dersim, Hinis - Varto
  • Central dialects: Palu, Bingöl
  • Süddialekte: Cermik, Siverek, Çüngüş, Gerger
  • Border dialects: Mutki, Aksaray, Sariz
  • Transitional dialects: Kulp, Lice, Ergani, maggots
  • Bajalani: Qasr -e Shirin, Zohab, Bin Qudra, Quratu, Khanaqin, Ninawa
  • Shabaki: Ali Rach, Khazana, Talara, and Ninawa
  • Sarli: Northern Mariana Is. Ninawa, Kirkuk Province
  • Hawrami: Iran. Kurdistan, Hawraman, Kermanshah (Iran)

Zaza - Gorani and Balochi may form a separate genetic entity ( " Hyrkanisch " ), but this view is not shared by all researchers.

The classification in Ethnologue not match the current state of scientific knowledge ( cf. CIL). Generally tends Ethnologue to make dialects separate languages. " Kirmanjki " and " Dimli " are just alternative names of Zazaki, the other called " languages ​​" are dialects of Gorani.

Displacement of the Gorani by Sorani

Gorani was used until the 19th century by many speakers in Iran and Iraq, but later more and more displaced by Sorani. Probably won the Sorani by Sunni influences increasingly important. Today Gorani is spoken by the majority of the Ahl -e Haqq.

Linguistic Remarks

Gorani how the Kurmanji and Zazaki a Zweikasusflexion. There has as yet Zazaki the two genera masculine and feminine. The Gorani is comparatively little research in contrast to the Kurmanji, Sorani and Zazaki. Allen Kurdish languages ​​are characterized by ergativity.

Gorani literary works

The main Gorani literary works are:

  • Shirin u Xusrew ( 874 pages) of Xanay Qûbadi ( 1700-1759 ). It was published in Baghdad in 1975.
  • Sofa ( 789 pages) from the 19th century by the poet Feqe Qadiri Hemewend.
  • The Koran in Gorani from the 19th century by Haci Nuri Eli Ilahi ( Nuri Eli Shah).