Gottfried Weber

Jacob Gottfried Weber ( born March 1, 1779 Freinsheim, Pfalz, † September 21, 1839 in Bad Kreuznach ) was a German music theorist, composer and lawyer.

  • 3.1 compositions
  • 3.2 fonts



With 12 years Weber came to school education by the local clergy of his birthplace in the wake of the turmoil of the French Revolution to the grandfather to Mannheim. After he had completed in 1796, the local high school, he began the study of law. After two semesters in Heidelberg he interrupted the study for a visit to relatives in Vienna and a subsequent " année de stage " in a lawyer 's prestigious Mannheim. Then he took the law school for another 2 semester again. From April 1800 Weber studied for three semesters in Göttingen. After the internship period at the Imperial Chamber Court in Wetzlar put Weber in 1802 his final examination in Heidelberg from. He worked as a lawyer at the High Court in Mannheim in 1805 and joined the civil service in.

Musical development

He was early on the flute and the cello practical training, but his lack of theoretical and musical training awakened in him the need to catch this. He studied the systems of KirnBerger, Marpurg, Vogler and servant. He even made a separate sound system: attempt an orderly theory of Tonsetzkunst. Here he performs for the first time ( German ) letters Chord name (the Latin meant single tones ), namely large letters for the major, small letters for the minor chord. Also, Weber described the triads and seventh chords on the steps of the scale through large and small ( Roman ) numbers, which was taken over by Friedrich Schneider and attained universality. Hugo Riemann's function name is also based on Weber's stage numbers. Weber's designation system contradict many theoretical explanations.

Stages of his life

The stages of his full-time legal life Ganges were also sites of his musical work. Weber was 1802-1814 Fiskalprokurator in Mannheim and the Mannheim city to this day important the establishment of the musical union Conservatorium is (later Museum ), the restoration of sacred music in the Jesuit church, the leadership of people like concerts, working with the new National Theatre and the establishment a vocal and instrumental quartet on the domestic music industry. His friendship with Carl Maria von Weber, on the run in Gottfried Weber Mannheim White House reception took place in 1810, lasted a lifetime. During his professional activity in Mainz from 1814-1818 as a judge at the Tribunal Weber worked at the museum, worked in senior directorship Committee of the theater and published his compositions and theoretical works published by Schott. In Mainz he joined the Masonic Lodge " Les amis réunis ". As Generalstaatsprokurator in Darmstadt from 1819 to 1839 Weber composed due to work overload hardly. But His great creative power is evident in his further employment of the theoretical penetration of the critical work of the founding of the magazine Cecilia, the planning of a lexicon and an aesthetic of music. Here he was in 1832 criminal law to the Grand Ducal Generalstaatsprokurator appointed in recognition of his services in the drafting of the new civil and. Weber died in Bad Kreuznach on a series of visits his brother in law on September 21, 1839, unexpectedly at the age of 60 years.


The musical merits, which also paid tribute to Hugo Riemann, Gottfried Weber Jacob will be mainly on the theoretical field. He was the first of the steps designations (I, II, III, etc. ) through systematized and crossed with general principles of harmonic progressions. The stages harmony Heinrich Schenker is indirectly influenced by Weber. Although Weber was one of the first in the Middle Rhine area, which went to the through-composed song, his position in the early Romantic music scene is less well known. He wrote in the field of church music fairs with orchestra, but he was trying to break away from the liturgical context. Of particular note are his contributions to customer instrument, such as the construction of a double trombone (trombone with double train ). In the unfinished by Weber dispute about the authenticity of the Requiem of Mozart, he was of the opinion that one must differentiate between Mozart and Süßmayr.


The origin of all plants are 1803-1814, the edition data 1806-1828.


  • Topic con variazioni for guitar, cello or flute, op.1, Leipzig, Breitkopf & Härtel, 2nd Edition Schott Mainz
  • A plant with the same cast, op.2, Paris, Richault, untraceable
  • Not to determine op.3 -14
  • Sonate per il Cembalo op.15, dedicata al suo amico CMvWeber, Bonn, Simrock
  • Twelve four-part songs for soprano, alto, tenor, bass, op.16, 3 booklets, Augsburg, Gombart ( Abbé Vogler dedicated )
  • Twelve Songs for one voice with accompaniment of piano or guitar, op.17, Bonn, Simrock ( the Queen of Bavaria dedicated )
  • Te Deum, Germany's victorious armies dedicated op.18, Offenbach, André
  • Songs of Goethe, Jean Paul and others for voice and piano and guitar, op.19, Bonn, Simrock
  • Triumphal March for full Feldmusik F or Eb op.20, Mainz, Schott
  • Lyre and sword, songs with piano or guitar, op.21, 4 issues, Bonn, Simrock
  • Spiritual children songs for soprano and alto, op.22, Leipzig, Hofmeister
  • 4 Songs for 1 and 2 deep voices with piano or guitar, op.23, Leipzig, Hofmeister
  • Consecrated Requiem for male voice, the manes of the winners at Leipzig and Belle- Alliance, op.24, Offenbach, André
  • Songs from Schiller, Goethe and others for voice with guitar or piano, op.25, Augsburg, Gombart
  • Trio No.1 for Violin, Viola and Cello, op.26, Augsburg, Gombart
  • Missa IF for choir and solo voice with accompaniment of violin, Altviolen, bass, mandatory organ, trumpet and timpani, op.27, Mainz, Schott
  • Missa II G for voice with accompaniment of violin, Altviolen, bass, oboe, bassoon, "arbitrary" flute and trombone, op.28, Bonn, Simrock
  • Liederkranz for one or more voices, with and without accompaniment of guitar or piano, op.31, Mainz, Schott
  • 3 song for solo voice with piano or guitar, op.32, Leipzig, Peters
  • Missa III e for choir and solo voice, accompanied by violin, Altviolen, bass, flute, oboe or clarinet, bassoon, horn and organ, op.33, Leipzig, Probst
  • Songs for Voice and guitar or piano, op.34, Leipzig, Peters
  • Songs for four male voices unaccompanied, op.35, Berlin, Schlesinger
  • Love, lust and suffering for one voice with guitar or piano, op.36, Mainz, Schott
  • Theme from Der Freischütz with Variations for Flute with guitar ad libitum, op.37, Bonn, Simrock
  • Barcarolle millfiori variée for flute with guitar, op.38, Bonn, Simrock
  • Etude de Flûte en dix variations with guitar ad libitum on a Norwegian theme, op.39, Bonn, Simrock
  • Hard song for male voice and general chorus, op.40, Mainz, Schott
  • Other vocal music for large vocal events and smaller circles, op.41, 4 issues, Mainz, Schott
  • Table for two songs and three male voices with choir and guitar or piano, op.42, Mainz, Schott
  • Alexandrina, New Year gift for friends of singing, solo singing of one to two part songs with piano accompaniment or the guitar, op.43, Darmstadt, Alisky

Documentary provable are the following works:

  • Deucalion, melodrama
  • Cain and Abel, melodrama
  • Cantata for the reception of Lewis I. in the museum at Mainz, cantata
  • Cantata for the reception of our amiable wife Grand Duchess, cantata
  • French cantata, cantata
  • 1 String Quartet
  • 13 individual songs and 20 newly discovered songs
  • 1 Triumphmarsch D to the final scene of the opera Tancred by G. Rossini


  • Theoretical writings Attempt an orderly theory of Tonsetzkunst 1st edition in 3 volumes, Mainz 1817-1821
  • 2nd edition in 4 volumes, 1824 ( digitized Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4)
  • 3rd edition 1830-1832
  • English translation in 2 volumes by JF Warner, 1846
  • French translation by G. Kastner, 1837
  • Danish translation, Dutch translation
  • The basso - teaching for self-instruction (extended excerpt from Vol 4), Mainz: Schott 1833, English translation by JF Warner, Boston 1842
  • Music science Results of previous research on the authenticity of Mozart's Requiem, Mainz 1826, Schott
  • Further results of further research on the authenticity of Mozart's Requiem, Mainz 1827, Schott
  • The conflict between the old and new music, Wroclaw 1826, Förster ( with contributions by Hans Georg Naegeli and Gottfried Weber)
  • Participation in the first 20 volumes of Caecilia. A journal for the musical world, Mainz 1824-1839, Schott ( digitized )
  • Contributions in the Universal musical newspaper (since 1803)
  • Contributions to Ersch / Gruber: General Encyclopedia of Sciences and Arts, Leipzig 1818, Gleditsch