Grammatical person

The grammatical category of person is represented in all languages ​​in the form of personal pronouns. In many languages, it is also a formal (morphological ) category of the verb. It is in principle for each speech situation characteristic that there is a speaker ( first person), the addressee ( person addressed, 2nd person ) and something / someone, on the one speaks (3rd person ).

Background

In many languages ​​and language families - also in Indo-European, to which the German part - the verbs are conjugated in these three people:

  • I Love ( 1 person)
  • You love ( 2 person)
  • He / she / it loves (3rd person )
  • We love ( 1 person)
  • Loves her ( 2 person)
  • They love (3rd person )

The polite form of "you" is one of their significance forth for 2 person (either singular or plural), but falls formal - apart from the upper case - with the 3rd person plural together.

The distinction of grammatical gender (Genus: he - masculine, she - feminine, it - neuter ) in the 3rd person singular occurs only in one part of the world's languages ​​. You can also occur in the 1st and 2nd person depending on the language in the plural.

Ambiguous persons name

A number of languages ​​can the verb not only the person of the subject ( such as German ), but also the object label ( Polypersonalität ). One example is the Swahili:

  • Mimi Ninakupenda ( subject 1 person, object second person, ie " I love you" )
  • Mimi ninampenda ( subject 1 person, object 3rd person, ie " I love him / her " )
  • Wewe unanipenda ( subject 2 person, object 1 person, so " you love me " )
  • Wewe unampenda ( subject 2nd person, 3rd person object, so " you love him or her " )
  • Yeye ananipenda ( 3rd person subject, object 1 person, ie " he / she loves me " )
  • Yeye anakupenda ( 3rd person subject, object second person, ie " he / she loves you " )
  • Yeye anampenda ( subject 3rd person, 3rd person object, ie " he / she loves him / her " )
  • Sisi tunawapenda ( subject 1 person, object 2nd / 3rd person, so " we love you / it " )
  • Ninyi mnatupenda ( subject 2 person, object 1 person, so " you love us " )
  • Ninyi mnawapenda ( subject 2nd person, 3rd person object, so " you love it " )
  • Wao wanatupenda ( 3rd person subject, object 1 person, so " they love us " )
  • Wao wanawapenda ( 3rd person subject, object 2nd / 3rd person, so " they love you" )

The conjugation of the verb takes place in Swahili so on Verbanfang, not the ending. A grammatical gender does not mark the Swahili. The 2nd and 3rd person plural are indeed distinguished as a subject on the verb, but not as an object.

Special shapes

There are also different in many languages ​​We forms in which the person addressed be included or not ( inclusive and exclusive we ), for example in Indonesia:

  • Kita " we together with you / you" ( 1st person plural inclusive )
  • Kami " we without you / you" ( 1st person plural exclusive)

In many languages ​​, the people marking of the verb is also in front of the verb stem (see prefix), whereas they follow the German and the other Indo-European languages ​​the verb root.

In addition to the inkusiven or exclusive Wirform there are some languages ​​nor the impersonal form "man", a dual, more rarely a trial or Quadral form, which also distinguish between a "with" or "without" the viewer or the speaker. Such people relationships are often expressed by specific pronouns such as Dualpronomen.

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