Griqua people

Griqua ( Afrikaans: Griekwa ) is a collective term for societies in southern Africa, resulting from the combination of Khoikhoi or Nama and Boers developed ( Baster and Orlam ). In the apartheid era, they were counted in the category of " coloreds ". 1813 to Rev. John Campbell of the London Missionary Society ( LMS), the name given to a group of Chariguriqua ( Khoikhoi of the Cape ), Basters, Koranna and Tswana have ( Bastaards also ) is introduced. However, the term De Groote Griegriequas is already on a map of Isaak Tirion from the year 1730.


From the relations of the Khoikhoi and Nama with European immigrants initially formed clans who remained in the physical environment of their Afrikaner relatives and there is often not only learned the language but also reading and writing; they were quite familiar with the habits of the European colonists, were frequently Christianized and understood each other. upon the handling of firearms All this gave the Orlam and Baster in the colonial context this time a certain superiority over the Khoikhoi and Nama and promoted a separation of those. From the family clans were formed gradually more independent units, which usually - the Dutch model - an elected Kapitein (Captain) board and under his ( burischem ) name they then found their way into South African history. Among the societies of origin include the Africans under their captain Jager Afrikaner and the Witbooi under their Captain Kido Witbooi. They both moved in the course of the 19th century north across the Orange River and certain decades the historical development in West Africa.

A large settlement area was Griqualand West at Kimberley. Thither Adam Kok I. had led a number of Griqua in the late 18th century. In 1813 they were Christianized. In the 1820s, several spin-offs formed. A group walked with Adam Kok II eastward to Philippolis, where he founded another " Griquastaat ". From there they practiced raids on the Basotho under Moshoeshoe I, who then not only copied the attack techniques, but as the Griqua help of European missionaries were looking for. 1833, the first French missionaries from Philippolis came to the Basotho. The Bergenaars were Griqua, who lived in the mountains in the south of present-day Lesotho and were known for their cattle rustling.

From Philippolis wandered a great Griqua under Adam Kok III group. from 1861. across the country of the Basotho and the Drakensberg in the " No Man 's Land", later Griqualand East, where they founded their own community, which issued its own coins, among other 1877 were incorporated by law in the Cape Colony and Griqualand West Griqualand East.

The Griqua were mainly in the 19th century a significant population group, many lost but little by little, so that they no longer play the role of the past by their ethnic identity today. Today is occasionally sought to strengthen the identity of the Griqua again and to give them the recognition as an indigenous people.

In South Africa, emerged in the 19th century, similar to the simultaneous multiple Griquastaaten Boer republics, each of which was governed by a Captain. The most important were Griqualand West, Griqualand East and Philippolis.

Today, the Griqua, especially in the Northern Cape live in the area around Griekwastad and in the Eastern Cape to Kokstad, but also scattered all over South Africa.

Griquas today is also the name of a rugby team in South Africa.