Groningen (Dutch [ ɣro ː nɪŋə ] ( listen / i )? ), In old High German documents: Groningen, Groninger Platt Grönnen, is the capital of the province of Groningen in the Netherlands, with 195 405 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2013 with the surrounding 350,000 inhabitants).
The city has a University since 1614, is also located in Groningen University of Applied Sciences, the Hanzehogeschool. Approximately 50,000 students are enrolled in the city.
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Groningen is situated 75 kilometers west of Leer ( Ostfriesland ) and 180 km north-east of Amsterdam on the A7 ( E22 ).
The city has an area of 76.77 km ² and is located at the channels Winschoterdiep, Noord- Willems Van Starkenborghkanaal and on Eemskanaal, connects with the Groningen Delfzijl on the Emsküste. The built-up urban area is historically very compact.
The city of Groningen or Cruninga - as they used to be called - emerged from a loose coalition of three or four scattered nearby farms. The first traces can be dated to about 300 BC. From 600 to 700 AD there was a firm settlement of the area of today's city center - " de Grote Markt " ( German: the Great Market). The first roll-call record comes from the year 1040, when the city under a donation from Henry III. was transferred to the Bishop of Utrecht.
Groningen is located at the northern end of the " Hondsrug " (not to be confused with the Hunsrück), a sandy elevation in the middle of formerly extensive bog that stretches from " Drentsche plateau " to the center of the city, in earlier times the only connection between these two areas had. Due to its location, the city was able to acquire a central role in the region. Many merchants who traded with England and the Baltic countries, settled here. 1422 joined at Groningen the Hanseatic League. Until the 17th century - the "Golden Age " of the Netherlands - Groningen had developed into a thriving commercial center, not least because of there existing court, which was also responsible for the surrounding areas.
The diocese of Groningen was 1559. Starting in 1580, the city was under Spanish rule. After conquest by Maurice of Orange in 1594 Groningen, together with the surrounding areas a part of the Republic of the United Netherlands, and thus also Protestant. 1672 tried the Prince-Bishop of Münster, Christoph Bernhard von Galen, to occupy the city by siege and cannon fire. His penchant for artillery earned him the nickname " Bommen Berend " ( " canon Bernhard" ). On August 28, 1672, his attack was repulsed. This event is commemorated in Groningen to become a local holiday with lots of activities, the so-called Gronings Ontzet.
During World War II the city suffered considerable damage. In April 1945, the Allies had reached Groningen, they encountered fierce resistance of the German occupation forces. Part of the city center had to be conquered by heavy street fighting. The buildings, which were then developed in the context of reconstruction, are now the subject of intense debate. Many of them want to replace by better.
Akademiegebouw: The main building of the University of Groningen in the city center, the Akademiegebouw is well worth seeing. It was designed in 1909 by Chief Government Architect YES Vrijman. The previous university building was in 1906 during renovations become a victim of the flames, whereupon the existence of the entire university was at stake. Compared to the academy building is the University Library Groningen.
Martini Tower: There is also the 96 -meter-high Martini Tower, built 1469-1482 from Bentheim sandstone, and the associated church of St. Martin in the " Grote Markt ". From 1548 to 1577 the tower was 127 feet high, to the wooden tip burned during a bonfire after the withdrawal of enemy troops.
Arp Schnitger built major organs in the Martinikerk (1692 ), the Aa - Kerk ( 1702) and the Pelster - Gasthuiskerk ( 1693), all of which are still preserved.
Groninger Museum: Another outstanding in 1994 and inaugurated by the designer Alessandro Mendini in collaboration with the architect Michele de Lucchi, Philippe Starck and Coop Himmelb ( l) au, Groninger Museum. Its distinctive design and the interesting position in the water made for international attention. On show will be changing exhibitions and exhibits of pre-and early history of the province of Groningen and the remarkable collection of Chinese porcelain.
Synagogue: The synagogue built in 1906 Jewish services are celebrated since 1981 again.
The Groninger Museum
The St. Jozef Cathedral
The council has 39 seats and is elected for four years. The social democratic PvdA is the largest party with nine seats and, with Peter Rehwinkel the mayor. The liberal VVD is the second largest with six seats fraction. This is followed with five seats Groen Links and Stadspartei. About four seats have D66 and SP. CDA and ChristianUnion have two seats, the party student and city and the PvdD.
Groningen has a dense city bus network with a total of 37 lines ( to 9 night routes ), on the buses but usually only every half hour ( even on Sundays every hour ) drive. Many bus lines reach the central bus station in front of the main train station. Moreover, Groningen center of an extensive regional bus network. Both urban, and regional buses, the company operates Qbuzz Groningen Drenthe.
All Groninger city and regional buses accept the OV- chipkaart, an RFID-based rechargeable smart card. Casual passengers buy the driver a Eurokaartje (from € 1.50 for max. 1 hour drive on max. 2 zones ) with different time - zone and tariff restrictions.
From 1880 to 1949 decreed Groningen via a tram network, which was afterwards eventually replaced by trolley buses and by conventional diesel buses. A reintroduction of the tram in the form of a light rail system with two lines is planned.
Following a Europe-wide investigation of VCÖ Groningen is the leader when it comes to the share of cycling traffic. About 50 percent of the way the population will come here by bike, compared with 27% of Copenhagen, Amsterdam and Bremen (22 %) or Munich ( 19%) and Berlin ( 13%). Street Films has Groningen in 2013 declared a World -bike City and compiled in an English video impressions to the traffic backgrounds for the special attractiveness of cycling and votes from users. The bike is much faster time than the car and the bus charges of knowingly planned restrictions for car traffic, especially in the city center, but also in other source-destination connections. There are special bridges for pedestrians and cyclists on a busy channel, where cars have to wait on a swing bridge up to ten minutes to passing ships.
The actual city center around the Great Market and Fish Market is entirely car-free, the outer center is divided into four sectors. Direct traffic between the sectors with each other is not possible. The city is surrounded by a four-lane ring road, suitable for connecting the outer suburbs as well as the highways. For several years worked to carry out all ports without traffic lights, with the completion of the work is expected in 2015.
In East-West direction, the A7 motorway and the north-south direction is the A28.
In Groningen meet major inland waterways. From the West ( Friesland / Amsterdam) Van Starkenborghkanaal, of Delfzijl ( Dollard, Emden ) the Eemskanaal, from the southwest, the Winschoterdiep, and the Noord- Willems from the south.
Groningen is located on the railway line from Leeuwarden to Germany (east -west link, railway empty Groningen) and the south via Assen to Meppel. In addition, the north branch off two branch lines; one leads to Delfzijl and the other to Roodeschool.
Groningen has a commercial airport, the Groningen Airport Eelde.
In Groningen total, more than 50,000 students.
The time-honored University of Groningen ( RUG) looks back on a nearly four hundred year history (founded in 1614) and has earned as a research and teaching institution has a good international reputation. The university is organized into nine faculties: theology, philosophy, medicine, mathematics and natural sciences, law, language and literature, social sciences, economics and spatial planning.
There are also in Groningen Hanze University Groningen State, University of Applied Sciences ( Dutch: Hanzehogeschool ). This is not a university in the German sense, but an HBO, which is comparable to a German university. The Hanze University of Applied Sciences, leads her foundation year back to 1798. This year, the first Art Academy Minerva was opened. The university offers its more than 25,000 students 70 different master's and bachelor's degree programs and courses offered by the internal commercial service HanzeConnect. Courses are available in the disciplines of business and management, engineering, health and sports, social care, art, music and dance in a total of 19 different faculties.
- Theatre Festival " Noorderzon ": the theater festival attracts thousands of visitors
- Pop festival " Noorderslag " held every year in Groningen place and consists of a music conference and showcase festival for European music ( EUR Sonic Festival), as well as some prizes. Showcase Festival: the showcase festival is a music fair, which takes place every year in Groningen. The festival also includes the Euro Sonic Festival.
- Euro Sonic Festival: Every year on this festival more than 300 European bands and present themselves to the audience. The festival is dedicated to each year a country and its music scene particularly intense.
Culture and Leisure
In Groningen, there are several museums. In addition to the Groninger Museum, these are the " Noordelijke National Maritime Museum ," the " Universiteitsmuseum " and the " Nederlandse Strip Museum ", a comic book museum. Existing theaters and concert halls are " Oosterpoort " and " Stadsschouwburg ". The clubs of the city are located on the Grote Markt and in the Poelestraat. The Holland Casino operates one of its twelve branches here.
The largest daily newspaper of Groningen is the Dagblad van het Noorden.
The city of Groningen is represented in the Dutch football by FC Groningen. The first football men's team plays in the highest Dutch league, the Eredivisie. The FC Groningen plays its home games at the home stadium euro Borg. 2011 and 2012 was part of the motorcycle Long Course World Championship on the 1,100 m long trotting dirt track in the city park Groningen the Long Track World Championships Grand Prix of the Netherlands instead.
Sons and daughters:
- January Sichterman Albert (1672-1764), sailor and collector
- Tiberius Hemsterhuis (1685-1766), philologist
- Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782), Swiss mathematician
- Matthias van Geuns Steevens (1735-1817), physician and botanist
- John Goodricke (1764-1786), English astronomer
- Jozef Israels (1827-1911), painter
- Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926), Physicist
- Jantine Tammes (1871-1947), a botanist
- Johan Huizinga (1872-1945), historian
- Jaap Kunst (1891-1960), an ethnomusicologist
- Nico Rost (1896-1967), and anti-fascist writer and journalist
- Herman Nankman (1897-1973), cyclist
- Willem Hendrik Crouwel (* 1928), graphic
- Maarten Schmidt ( born 1929 ), astronomer
- Dirk Bolt ( born 1930 ), architect and town planner
- Piet Fransen ( b. 1936 ), football player
- Coosje van Bruggen (1942-2009), Dutch - American sculptor, art historian and art critic
- Nico Been ( b. 1945 ), cyclist
- Herman van Dijk (* 1947), econometricians
- Herman Franke (1948-2010), criminologist and writer
- Jan Marinus Wiersma (* 1951), politician
- Louwrens Langevoort ( b. 1957 ), director
- Paul Edwin Wieringa ( b. 1964 ), scholar of Islam
- Hayo Boerema (* 1972), organist
- Annemiek de Haan ( born 1981 ), rower
- Rutger Smith ( born 1981 ), athlete
- Arjen Robben ( born 1984 ), football player
- Ben Woldring (* 1985), IT entrepreneurs
- Leandro Bacuna (* 1991), football player
People with relationship to the city:
- Felix Ortt (1866-1959 Soest ), civil engineer, author, and Christian anarchist
- Noisia, musical group
- John Corputius (died 1611 in Groningen), cartographer, military, and last captain in Groningen. His epitaph is in the Martini church.
- Ubbo Emmius ( 1547 Greetsiel -1625 Groningen), pastor, historian, educator and first rector of the University of Groningen
- Aletta Jacobs (1854-1929), studied since 1871 in Groningen medicine and became the first female doctor in the Netherlands, she was also active as a women's rights activist
From the region of Groningen originated the breed " Groningen ".
The 11 partner cities, arranged in chronological order the closing of the partnership:
- United Kingdom Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom )
- Germany Oldenburg (Lower Saxony, Germany )
- Denmark Odense ( Denmark)
- Austria Graz ( Austria ), since 1964
- People's Republic of China Tianjin ( People's Republic of China, 1986)
- San Carlos Nicaragua (Nicaragua, 1986)
- Russia Murmansk (Russia, 1989)
- Russia Kaliningrad ( Russia)
- Estonia Tallinn (Estonia, 1993)
- Czech Republic Zlin (Czech Republic, 1996)
- Poland Katowice (Poland )