The GT4 Stuttgarter Strasse AG (SSB ), named after the manufacturer, the Maschinenfabrik Esslingen, Esslingen also GT4 is a four-axle articulated railcars, which was used from 1959 to December 2007 in regular operation in the network of the Stuttgart trams.
With the opening of the city Südastes Subway Line 15 on a section of the existing line 15 8 December 2007 the 48- year-long era of regular operation with tramcars GT4 in Stuttgart came to an end. Total (as of September 2013) are obtained nine railcars of the type GT4 in Stuttgart museum, six of which are operational and three as non-operational museum car. Four others are also kept as spare parts, two have been converted from the SSB to stationary seminar and lounges (see below). The leasing and marketing of the museum GT4 is up to the club Stuttgart Historic trams V. The remaining 31 GT4, which were still operating to setting 2007 inventory of the SSB, were sold in 2008 to the tram Iasi in Romania.
- 5.1 Operable
- 5.2 Non- operative
- 5.3 Further preserved cars in the Stuttgart area ( restricted to the public)
The SSB procured 350 GT4, which were already not running at the time of delivery internally and externally identical. There are also replicas that were created due to serious accident damage, but only to existing car replaced. The relative success of the cars at the SSB encouraged other street railway companies, also to procure this type of car. So another 30 vehicles were built, but for the most part showed significant differences from the Stuttgart car.
Used Stuttgart GT4, were used in part to the present day, in Freiburg, Augsburg, Ulm, Germany, Halle ( Saale), Halberstadt and Nordhausen.
The GT4 was developed because the longer six-axis articulated railcar ( GT6 ) with Jakob bogie for the winding and steep rich Stuttgart route network is not suitable. In particular, the strong overhangs on the inside of the curve led to numerous encounters prohibited. The vehicles are four-axle articulated railcar for meter gauge and equipment traffic. They have, therefore, only on the right in the direction of travel cars side doors. The hinge structure is as follows: The two halves of the car body are based on the secondary feathers on each bogie from. The guiding is done by a pivot pin. The so-called joint carrier based on kidney-shaped slide plates onto facing the center of the car cross member of the bogies. A wishbone thereby ensures that the joint carrier not sliding down the slide plates. On the joint carrier part, the joint site is placed, in which in turn support the carbody on the joint carrier part. The car is running on a curve, the rotation of the bogie under the carriage bodies results in that the hinge carrier on the outside of the curve is deflected toward. Since, therefore, the joint portal from the direct line connecting the two pivots is pushed out, stands between the two halves of a car body angle. This design also has the consequence that a car, which is exactly in the middle of a symmetrical S- curve is not outwardly bent, only the joint portal is twisted. (Picture: see web link). The cars have two engines, which are suspended directly from the bogies in the joint support. They drive through cardan shafts respectively the inner axle of the bogie on. The first and the fourth axis of each truck have no propulsion; together they contribute only about one third of the cars weight. But they feature a drum brake and are already mitgebremst during regenerative braking via an electro-pneumatic valve, which lowers the pressure of the spring Laufachs memory. The wheel arrangement is the following drive arrangement, ie (1A ) ' (A1 ) '.
A similar joint construction, but with a centrally positioned under the car segments bogies, had the first short Bremer articulated cars ( GT4 - GT4c ). There, however, steered the curve fitting later hydraulically (Bremer GT4D - GT4f ). Similar only externally is also the structure of the Tatra KT4. The joint controller, however, is solved differently and leads to much larger kink angles.
Leading and -run car
The GT4 may be operating in triple traction, but this was only used when operating rides. In line mode, the vehicles were mostly used in double traction, until the 70 years in some cases even further with a sidecar B2 (so-called 49 -meter train ) or as a single car with a sidecar. All vehicles were originally delivered as a leading railcar, later a closed cab was subsequently in a portion of the vehicles built, the remaining vehicles were to run railcars ( covering of the lower headlight, no cab). The idea of the vehicles also Beitriebwagen was mentioned, investments in the modernization of the car to avoid the fact that a part of the car was left in a state that they no longer made fully operational. Thus, these cars were ( with one exception ) no radio equipment and all no inductive train control. While this limited the use of these cars, but resulted in significant savings. This involved 24 vehicles of the first batch, 30 of the second series, 98 of the third and fourth as well as 8 of the fifth batch, a total of 180 railcars. As of 1989, a total of 48 GT4 were transformed into so-called " GT4 2000", with upholstered seats, new wiring and more modern equipment for use over the year 2000, there is however only fully embodied leading power car, but they were still mostly used in a train. Usually one used the GT4 2000 as a leading car because your functions is higher than that of non- modernized car. For example, they have a washer, an emergency brake, a wheel flange lubrication device and an integrated operational information system (IBIS) with infrared ( IRIS). Only with this car, the exact assignment of line and course at the control center and a quality preemption at traffic lights with the road traffic was possible. For the conversion to GT4 2000, seven former " guided " railcars were upgraded and retrofitted with a Zugsicherungsanlage and all other accessories. From 1998, the use of the " guided " GT4 was officially ended after the light rail moderate expansion of line 13; 2002 were not taken to " GT4 2000 ' converted railcar 471 and 466, which only came as Beitriebwagen finally used in the service plan and the last two.
GT4 that are not obtained from the SSB
In addition to the 350 procured from the GT4 SSB 30 more cars were built. These vehicles went on the Freiburg traffic AG ( 19 pieces ) at the Reutlinger tram (3 pieces ) and to the Neunkircher tram (8 pieces). The Freiburg cars were partially built after the closure of the Maschinenfabrik Esslingen, it took over the wagon factory in Rastatt. All 30 non- Stuttgart cars were designed for bi-directional operation and therefore had doors on both sides of the wagon. The door arrangement was going to point symmetry joint center: Heading towards the right were in the front car part two, in the back of a door. All of the cars of the ME were equipped with two Schaffner places, which led, in conjunction with the additional doors to a significantly reduced number of seats offered against the Stuttgart car.
The Reutlinger GT4 are their role models most similar to Stuttgart. Main differences are the lack of possibility of formation of traction, which is the ability to form multi-car trains, which are operated by a driver's cab. Furthermore, the usual in Reutlingen BSI compact clutch was used for those cars. The engine power was slightly less than that of the Stuttgart car.
The Freiburg and the Neunkircher cars had no compressed air system and no way to train formation. They were therefore provided for the sake of simplicity not having Protect derailleurs, but with direct motion switches ( crank- operated ).
The Neunkircher car differed from most of the Stuttgart Car: The bogies possessed inner frame, as they were designed for the European standard gauge 1435 mm. The engines were not in the joint support, but suspended below the platforms. Drove through a propeller shaft to the first and fourth axes, the second and third axes are coupled via intermediate shafts with universal joints to the short axis, respectively adjacent in the bogie. This Allachsantrieb was necessary because the largest slope in the network of Neunkircher tram was 11 percent - far more than in all other cities, the GT4 inserting. The GT4 for Neunkirchen were the only cars that exclusively as vehicles traveling on its own ( so-called solo vehicle ) could be used in the delivery. In Reutlingen and Freiburg there anyway had the opportunity to attach a sidecar, and use this in regular operation.
Museum cars in Stuttgart
- 401 (built in 1961, with driving education institution and Taufbeschriftung "regular home " )
- 450 (built in 1961, contributed to his resignation in late 2007 a full promotion of the now closed Tram Museum in Zuffenhausen today and for the Straßenbahnwelt Stuttgart)
- 471 (built in 1961, " GT4 2000 ' still largely preserved by the failure to conversion to type with original interior, but with the driver and conductor without cabin)
- 629 (built in 1963)
- 630 (built in 1963)
- 632 (built in 1963)
- 411 (built in 1961 as spare parts )
- 422 (built in 1961 as spare parts )
- 434 (built in 1961 as spare parts )
- 631 ( built in 1963, as spare parts )
- 519 ( built in 1959, led Beitriebwagen in the last operating state of 1990 ( exhibit ) )
- 642 ( built in 1963, led Beitriebwagen in the state of the 1980s (sample ) )
- 722 ( built in 1964, leading railcar in the state of the 1980s, is to be back in the next few years gradually into the state from 1977 (sample ) )
More cars obtained in the Stuttgart area ( restricted to the public)
- 454 (built in 1961), seminar room at the high ropes course in SSB event center Waldau Park
- 638 ( built in 1963 ), dayroom at the rail depot Remseck - Aldingen
Sale in other cities
Since the 1980s, were in Stuttgart due to the change of the network on urban rail system and standard gauge many GT4 free. The extra cars came in several other cities, including Ulm (14 pieces), Freiburg (10 pieces), Augsburg ( 43 pieces, three of spare parts ), Nordhausen ( 15 pieces, three of spare parts ), Halberstadt ( 13 pieces, two spare parts source after discontinuation of work on the party wagon Thus, a total of three of spare parts of former Stuttgart GT4 ), tram Halle ( Saale) ( 42 pieces, 32 of Stuttgart with spare parts source and nine of Freiburg, ie 39 pieces of the TW 586 was also used as a source of spare parts. for regular operation and two spare part donors), tram Arad ( Romania) ( total 45 pieces, of which 30 directly from Stuttgart, two of spare parts and 13 from Ulm), Iasi ( Romania) ( total 107 pieces, including 57 straight from Stuttgart, of which a spare part donors, 23 from Augsburg and 27 from Halle ) and Kōchi ( Japan) ( two pieces). Some vehicles were destroyed in a major fire in Stuttgart Feuerbach Depot in 1986.
The Reutlinger bidirectional vehicles arrived after a long shut-down time in Stuttgart, where she served most recently as spare parts, 1982 ( formerly Reutlingen 60 ), 1983 (formerly Reutlingen 59) and 1984 (formerly Reutlingen 61) to Ulm. There they were converted into one-way vehicles, but already scrapped during the year 1988 and replaced by a larger series of uniform former Stuttgart coach. Main reason for this was probably the lower engine power of the ex - Reutlinger car.
From the two 1989 the Japanese came Kōchi vehicles with the SSB numbers 714 and 735, a bi-directional vehicle was developed there. The resulting therefrom car received while no additional doors, so that only the two doors on the rear half in the direction of travel are usable because of the prevailing traffic in Japan links.
GT4 in Augsburg
Operation period from 1991 to July 2009:
Between 1991 and 1996, took over the Augsburg Transport Gesellschaft mbH (AVG ) per 20 shoot - and Beitriebwagen and three other GT4 as spare parts by the SSB. The ten 1996 procured pairs were provided as part of a restructuring at MGB in Mittenwalde among other things with a modified interior, where the seats were now located predominantly in the direction of travel.
Six pairs and the last GT4 three spare part donors was scrapped in late 2003. Because of the short-term secondment of some trains Combino parked GT4 already been reinstated in March 2004, starting in May only refurbished trains. Five pairs ( four sets of original and a modernized set; 413/468 ) were sold in April 2004 to Iasi in Romania. Since then perverted in Augsburg garnish 418, with several different sidecar. First Tw 470, then up to his accident Tw 464 and to the complete phase-out, in August 2009, the Tw 465
In early 2006, there were eight operative couples as well as a no longer operably couple the inventory of Stadtwerke Augsburg, although almost all Combinos are on the road again.
For their use in Augsburg the motor cars were the train control system ZUB 100 / ZUB 200, which was reserved in the Stuttgart S- DT8. The GT4 in Augsburg therefore have one of the most advanced point- train control systems in Germany.
2004 GT4 Tw 414 was shut down because of accident damage as spare parts and scrapped later. Similarly, the GT4 Tw was 2008 464 parked for accidental damage as spare parts and scrapped later and again for the GT4 - set 415/463 made operational so that in Augsburg, again in 2008 were eight GT4 sets in passenger service.
Seven of the eight Augsburg sets have already been pre- sold in late February 2009, even before the official withdrawal, to Iasi in Romania. Not affected was the GT4 - set 411/461. This set will receive a museum in Augsburg. She went to their withdrawal in August 2009 in the possession and existence of the "Friends of Augsburg Tram " above and is now available for special trips in Augsburg available. Because of an accident was the GT4 Tw 419, scrapped in Augsburg in 2009 and did not go as planned to Iasi. The body was scrapped in Augsburg and the remaining parts were used as spare parts to Iasi. Presumably as a replacement for the injured and scrapped GT4 Tw 419, the Augsburg GT8 TW 805 went with the rest remaining 13 Augsburg GT4 to Iasi. The last 13 Augsburg GT4 cars and the GT8 TW 805 have now arrived in Iasi, where some already in regular service in use. In Iasi, the GT4 but not run as in Augsburg in double traction, but in each case individually.
GT4 in Halle ( Saale)
In August 1990, the HAVAG received the Stuttgart car 749, the proven in use. Subsequently, an additional 30 cars from Stuttgart and 9 former Stuttgart GT4 were taken from Freiburg and put into operation in December, 1990; additionally more cars were purchased as spare parts. As of 1993 the majority of the stock in Mittenwald equipment construction has been completely refurbished and the cars were the red- silver-gray design HAVAG and full advertising.
In March 2003, the HAVAG could still waive the 27 operational vehicles that were delivered to Romania.