The Greek island Gyali (Greek Γυαλί (n. sg. ) [ ʝali ], glass ') is managed by the Municipality of Nisyros within the region South Aegean ( Περιφέρεια Νότιου Αιγαίου ).
The Dodecanese island Gyali is of volcanic origin and has been inhabited since the end of the Neolithic period. Today, the image of the island from the exploitation of Bimsvorkommen is characterized in surface mining. The isolated natural Pinus brutia forest is one of the lowest incidence of Art
Gyali located in the southeastern Aegean Sea about 20 km west of Asia Minor Datça peninsula and about 10 km south of Kos. The distance to the southern island of Nisyros is 3.5 km.
The island is formed by two hills of 182 m in the northeast and 179 m in the south-west, connected by a narrow land bridge is 250 meters. The largest dimension is 5.1 km from northeast to southwest. About 3.3 km to the east lies the uninhabited island Strongyli and 400 m south of Agios Andonios. The island area is 4.558 km ².
How Nisyros and the western Kos is Gyali together with Pergousa with Pachia on the eastern Cyclades bow and is of volcanic origin.
The north-eastern part consists mostly of a lava dome rhyolithischem obsidian, the southwestern of pumice, which is the result of ejected volcanic ash.
The last volcanic activity of Gyali find it noisy Thermolumineszenzdatierung place about 1460 BC and thus relatively close in time to the Minoan eruption of the volcanic island of Santorini.
The vegetation is dominated by heat and drought, but in comparison to other small islands much more diverse. In several places a forest of Calabrian pine ( Pinus brutia ) has developed. Expired terraces indicate former agricultural use, grazing by goats and 1998 can be seen in bite marks. The continued exploitation of the pumice deposits in the open pit has a significant impact on the environment. As ecological compensation measure for the substantial intervention in nature and landscape plantings are created.
On Gyali 241 species of ferns and seed plants were found. The original vegetation of the thermo- Mediterranean sclerophyllous height level with Virginia olive tree ( Olea europaea var sylvestris) and carob ( Ceratonia siliqua ) is in many places through a forest of Calabrian pine ( Pinus brutia ) replaced. The only known Pinus brutia forest reserves on perlite and pumice substrates is accompanied depending on soil conditions and plant density of the typical representatives of the maquis and Phrygana.
The emergence of Pinus brutia forest is thought to be associated with the lack of sustainable human settlement and the formation of topsoil by the slight weathering of the substrate. All ages are represented, the oldest specimens to about 100 years. The trees reach a height of about 6-7 m, sheltered from the wind and up to 12 m. In wind -exposed locations bushy forms reach less than 3 m in height. Accompany on low degraded areas of the southwest hill mainly mastic ( Pistacia lentiscus ) with individual savages oil trees ( Olea europaea var sylvestris), carob ( Ceratonia siliqua ), Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera ), Western strawberry trees (Arbutus unedo ), common myrtle ( Myrtus communis) and Quirlblättriger heath (Erica manipuliflora ). The dominant companion plant on shallow soils is Erica manipuliflora. Open stands of trees of the northeast hill are of the cistus Cistus salviifolius, Cistus parviflorus and Cistus creticus and Phrygana small shrubs Krähenbeerenblättriges St. John's wort (Hypericum empetrifolium ) and Lavandula stoechas (Lavandula stoechas ) interspersed, sometimes with Erica manipuliflora and Olea europaea var sylvestris, Ceratonia siliqua, Quercus coccifera, Thymbra mountain mint ( Satureja thymbra ), Thorny kidney vetch ( Anthyllis hermanniae ) and silver White sparrows tongue ( Thymelaea tartonraira ).
More degraded sites are of plant communities of the maquis with Erica manipuliflora, Ceratonia siliqua, Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris, Myrtus communis, Quercus coccifera and Arbutus unedo settled, it outweighs the proportion of Pistacia lentiscus. In some coastal locations, large-fruited juniper (Juniperus macrocarpa) has been established. On the northeast hills and Daphne gnidioides and tree spurge are (Euphorbia dendroides ) and scattered Ephedra ( Ephedra foeminea ) and the caper ( Capparis orientalis) to be found.
In areas with more advanced degradation of the maquis is replaced by Phrygana. Depending on location, different species dominate as Anthyllis hermanniae on the isthmus, Cistus creticus subsp. creticus and Cistus parviflorus on the northwestern slopes of the north-eastern hill and Lavandula stoechas (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas ) on old terraces Erica manipuliflora forms in places pure stocks. Most companions are Cistus salviifolius, Hypericum empetrifolium, Phagnalon graecum and Thymelaea tartonraira subsp. argentea and Teucrium capitatum.
The sandy locations of Spülsaums on the isthmus are of European sea rocket ( Cakile maritima ), salt herb ( Salsola tragus ) and Polygonum maritimum, the adjacent drift sand area of the beach - Filzblume ( Otanthus maritimus ), the beach thistle ( Eryngium maritimum ), beach spurge (Euphorbia paralias ), the wallflower ( Matthiola tricuspidata ) and couch grass ( Elymus farctus subsp. rechingeri ), the sea daffodil ( Pancratium maritimum ) and colonized other.
On a small regularly flooded area grow halophytes such as the beach Lilac Limonium graecum subsp. graecum and subsp. ammophilon, slightly off Frankenia hirsuta and thin tail ( Parapholis marginata ).
On Gyali exists a population of Snake Eyes Lizard Ophisops elegans.
The colonization of Gyali the end of the Neolithic period around 4500-3200 BC as well as services provided in the Hellenistic and Roman period archaeological surface survey.
In the southwestern part of the island a settlement, a cemetery with rock-hewn rectangular tombs and remains of buildings could be detected. At several locations around the island Neolithic pottery and obsidian deductions were found. Despite the obsidian deposits the Neolithic community probably lived from livestock, agriculture and fisheries. Trade with local obsidian played a rather minor role because of the poorer quality compared with the obsidian from the Cycladic island of Milos. Obsidian from Milos and Gyali was found on the 8.5 km south-west to the island Pergousa.
There are remains of the Hellenistic attachment as well as a cistern on the north side of the south-western hill. Numerous fragments of pottery on the north-eastern part were dated to the Hellenistic period. A grave in the same area dates from the early Christian period.
Accounts of later settlements do not exist. Probably the island was abandoned due to pirate attacks. From more recent times some simple stone houses that were inhabited seasonally come. The inhabitants built in cereals, legumes and grapes. After the Italian occupation of the Dodecanese of pumice mining was started and built a loading facility for ships. Agricultural activity continued until the Second World War. Later, some miners lived with their families on the island.
In the north - east of the island perlite is degraded by the company Aegean perlite SA. In the southwest of the island, the company builds LAVA - Mining & Quarrying Co. from pumice and is the largest Bimssteinexporteur world. Gyali is the largest Greek pumice reservoir with more than 120 million tons. The occurrence will be available, during which degradation over the 2100 addition.