Gzhel, Moscow Oblast
The village is located about 50 kilometers southeast of the center of the Russian capital Moscow on the Gschelka, a small left-hand tributary of the Moskva River.
Gzhel belongs to Rajon Ramenskoje. Its administrative center is the city Ramenskoje, ten kilometers to the southwest.
After several changes in the reform of local government between 2002 and 2007 the village Gzhel part with 13 other, mostly seamlessly merging towns to rural community Gschelskoje selskoje posselenije with a total of 10,421 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010 ). These include the close of the same settlement also Gzhel at the railway station with 345 inhabitants, the settlement of Gscheler Brickyard ( Possjolok Gschelskowo kirpitschnowo sawoda ) with 1880 inhabitants, the largest district of the few kilometers east location Retschizy with 3465 inhabitants, which is also where the administration ( all information 2006).
After Gzhel the Gzhelium is named ( according to the English transliteration ), a chronostratigraphic stage of the Carboniferous. The old to 300 million years strata occur in the vicinity of the place to light and were studied in detail paleontological here in the 19th century.
Gzhel was first mentioned in 1328 in the will of the Moscow Prince Ivan Kalita, in which he bequeathed to his son Ivan Ivanovich the surrounding area. Later Gzhel mentioned the Terrible from the years 1572-1578 in spiritual deeds and other princes in the testament of Ivan. After that, the village belonged to the Moscow Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy and as Vasily I. to Ivan IV, which is held in various spellings in the corresponding certificates. Since revenue from the region Gzhel were particularly high, this area was handed down in the families of large Moscow princes and tsars and secured this substantial income.
Early was Gzhel for its occurrence bright tone known their degradation began in the mid-17th century a large scale. 1663 was Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich a ukase out, " to send for the production of pharmacist and alchemist dishes suitable Sound" from Gzhel.
By the middle of the 18th century, mainly simple earthenware, brick, stove tiles and simple toy figures were primarily created for the needs of the nearby Moscow. During this time, the Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov expressed benevolent, " nowhere in the world " he had - " except maybe used for china " - seen purer and whiter tone than " our Gscheler ".
From about 1800 people crossed in the villages Minino and Wolodino for the production of pottery and porcelain after the discovery of new, suitable clay deposits. In 1812 there were in the surrounding approximately two dozen villages were called " Gscheler bush " ( Gschelski Kust ) and were among the Ujesden Bogorodsk and Bronnitsy, 25 factories, including the most famous of Jermil Ivanov and the Laptews in Kusjajewo and the first porcelain factory the brothers Kulikov. The dishes and the figures in the form of animals and figures from the Russian everyday blue and brown color with floral motifs in a characteristic, folk style were first in purple, yellow, painted.
From the second half of the 1820s, only dark blue color was used. The second quarter of the 19th century marked the zenith of Gscheler ceramic art in all forms; in this period came about half of ceramic production in Russia from Gzhel. Then there was a decline, and towards the end of the century, the entire production was in the hands of the owner family Kuznetsov. After the October Revolution of 1917, the Kuznetsov - production factories were nationalized, but only from the middle of the 20th century, revived in a large scale.
Culture and sights
In the village Gzhel is the Dormition Church ( церковь Успения Пресвятой Богородицы / Tserkov Uspenija Preswjatoi Bogoroditsy ), which was built in 1859 in place of an older stone church from 1701 and a wooden church from the 17th century.
The inspection of production of ceramic Gscheler with associated plant museums is possible.
Economy and infrastructure
The most important industry is today the production of ceramic Gscheler. Largest manufacturers Sin Rossii ( " Blue of Russia" ) in Troschkowo immediately east of the village and Objedinenije Gzhel Gzhel ( " Association Gzhel " ) with factory at eight kilometers east village Turygino. There are also companies in the building materials and construction, and agriculture.
Gzhel is due to the opened on this section 1899 railway Moscow -Kazan - Ekaterinburg Murom. Here are located on the two-track, electrified line of the same name Gzhel station at kilometer 57 (from Moscow Kazan station ) and the breakpoint is 55 km, which is suburban train from Moscow ( direction Kurowskoje - Schatura ).
Through the village the regional road R105 leads ( Moscow ) Ljuberzy - Egoryevsk - Kasimov, which is a little west of the village crossed by the Moscow Little Ring ( A107 ).