The church hall is a building type of a church, which is characterized by the shape of the nave. Whose vessels are united by the same or approximately the same height and usually under a common saddle roof. In contrast to the Basilica of the hall church has no clerestory. In addition to the church hall, the basilica and the central building of this building type forms one of the four basic types of Christian church architecture.
In addition to the most commonly encountered form of three-nave there are five naves and asymmetric shapes with only one aisle. Hall churches can simple wood -beamed ceilings or vaulted own. They are found with or without transept, built with different training of the choir.
As Season Hall or stepped hall is called a construction, in which the central nave rises a little higher than the aisles. From a pseudo- basilica is when the central nave rises significantly higher than the aisles and a nave wall above the arches formed which - unlike a real Basilica - remains windowless. While the outer walls of the church remain relatively low at a basilica, go in hall churches, the outer walls of windows over the full height of the building and reach for large buildings considerable extent.
Well since the 9th century began in Italy the development of the three-aisled vaulted space in the crypts. While they were mostly around porches, presented the hall crypt of Speyer Cathedral is a further development, as it clearly divides the space by piers with half-columns, wall projections and arches. Since about 1000 AD, the barrel- vaulted hall church in Catalonia and south-western France was a common building type, especially for smaller churches. They remained the dominant design in the area south of the Loire and on the Iberian Peninsula. In Poitou large buildings emerged as Saint- Hilaire -le-Grand in Poitiers. The Cathedral of Poitiers, the early Gothic further development of this type dar. In Westphalia is also a continuity of the church hall determine. St. Bartholomew's Chapel in Paderborn from 1017 is the oldest church hall north of the Alps. The Münsterländische stepped hall churches of the bound order as St. Ludgeri in Münster form a separate group of buildings. The Dome at Paderborn and Minden illustrate the development of a Gothic hall church. The decisive factor here is the early Gothic hall of the Elisabeth Church in Marburg. In the church hall opposite the Basilica omitted a window area, the triforium, and the flying buttresses - sufficed simple buttresses. In the late Gothic hall church which was characteristic especially for Germany and is considered typical German special form " Gothic " style. One of the first representative of the type of building in southern Germany was the older established by Heinrich Parler Holy Cross Münster in Schwäbisch Gmünd. Since the 14th century this building type was often used in parish churches. Reached a climax this design in the seven churches of the architect Hans von Burghausen and in the Saxon buildings of Annaberg -Buchholz and Freiberg. In the older literature, the spatial form of the Late Gothic hall church was under the concept of " special German Gothic " idealizes. The claim related, the church hall is a typical design of the civil parish church and its spatial image is as it were " democratic " than the Basilica, is seen critically today.
In the towns of Westphalia civic hall churches reached a special form of a square in the ideal floor plan. Important examples are the St. Peter's Church in Dortmund, Wies Church in Soest and St. Lamberti in Münster. One of the oldest Westphalian hall churches, in which the development of the Westphalian type of hall church, the exuded architecturally to North Eastern Europe, is easy to read, is the Hohnekirche in Soest. The community room of this church is actually broader than long.
In Southern Germany, Late Gothic hall church of St. George is in the former imperial city Dinkelsbühl.
In Austria, was built after significant precursors in Tulln ( Dominican Church ) with the 1295 consecrated hall choir of the Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross of the largest and most innovative examples of this type of building. Based on this began in 1327 the construction of the cathedral Neuberger, a particularly impressive, architecturally unified and clear Hall with straight chancel.
Another form of this Kirchenbautyps with level ships are the so-called Upper Saxony hall churches dar. examples are the Freiberg Cathedral, St. Wolfgang's Church in Schneeberg, St. Marienkirche in Marienberg, St. Anne's Church in Annaberg -Buchholz and St. Mary's Church in Pirna.
The type of two-aisled hall church has developed in the Inn -Salzach - field, it is also common in the Upper Austria. It comprises a number of churches in Upper Austria Innviertel at ( Hospital Church in Braunau, the parish churches in eggelsberg, stronghold on Weilhart, Ried, Handberg, Helpfau ). In Upper Bavaria him the parish churches of Schnaitsee, castle churches follow the forest, the Expositurkirche in Oberbuch (municipality Tyrlaching ) and the parish church of Tacherting, in Upper Austria on the churches of Laakirchen and north of the Danube, the churches in Mauthausen, crosses, Gramastetten, King meadows, Arbing, Ried in Ried Mark and Schenkenfelden, the Czech Republic, the pilgrimage church in Kájov ( Gojau ). The type also influenced churches such as the Franciscan Church in Berchtesgaden and the parish church in Schwaz and influenced among others Walseer the chapel in the former Franciscan monastery Enns.
The biggest late Gothic hall church east of Vienna is the Black Church in Brasov, Transylvania from the 14th century.