The Hamza (Arabic همزة, DMG Hamza; persian همزه Hamze; Urdu ہمزہ, in German also Hamsa, in other transcriptions also Hamzah ) is a character of the Arabic script. It is available in several Arabic -based alphabets with different functions in use.
In Arabic, the grapheme Hamza for the spelling of the phoneme همز / Hamz /, Compressibility ' used in the standard pronunciation of the voiceless glottal plosive (including glottal stop, IPA: [ ʔ ], as in the German word Note [ bəʔaxtə ] ) corresponds.
Hamza is placed either above or below a support character or written, in a dissociated single form, the exact spelling is subject to detailed rules (see below). The character is considered in the classical doctrine not as a letter and, in contrast to the 28 characters of the Arabic alphabet has no equivalent in any other Semitic writing. Hamza was not until around the 8th century, when the letter Alif took a change of meaning and a new sign for the glottal stop when considered necessary.
In other languages written in Arabic Hamza marks a hiatus, showing a word beginning with a vowel or place as umlaut or diacritic use.
- 5.1 Iranian languages 5.1.1 Persian
- 5.1.2 Sorani Kurdish -
- 5.1.3 Pashto
- 5.1.4 Ormuri
- 5.2.1 Urdu
- 5.2.2 Kashmiri
- 5.2.3 Sindhi
- 5.3.1 Uyghur
- 5.3.2 Kazakh
Alif with Hamza untergesetztem
Yā ʾ with übergesetztem Hamza
Hā ʾ with übergesetztem Hamza
In contrast to the 28 " real" Arabic letters is the manifestation of Hamza from its position in the word (initial, medial, final, isolated) dependent. The character exists in only one form, which in modern Arabic or under a support vowel, called كرسي / Kursi /, chair ', or is set to "on the line ". As carrier vowel can act in Arabic letters Alif ( ا ), Vav ( و ) and Ya ʾ ( ي ), where ya ʾ as Hamzaträger (except Maghreb spending the reading of Nafi ʿ ) loses its diacritical points. Hamza "on the line" means an addition to the preceding letter set unconnected Hamza without support characters; in the Koran itself strapless Hamza characters find directly above or below the line connecting two letters. More characters for the Arabic phoneme Hamz are Madda and Wasla (see Taschkil ).
In the Arabic script for other languages , the Hamza is also over and under other support characters. As a diacritical mark Hamza is in the Pashtun minutes of the HA ʾ ( ح ) and Ormuri about Ra ʾ ( ر ) are used. In the Arabic script of the Kazakh a "high" Hamza serves as umlaut; Kashmiri is in addition to the "normal" a curled Hamza in use - both forms of vocalisation and serve and can occur under all consonants and Alif. Only to find at the end of words is Hamza on Choti He ( ہ ) and Bari ye ( ے ) in Urdu and in Persian on the HA ʾ ( ه ).
Follows the carrier letter Alif on a Lām, Hamza is above or below the mandatory ligature Lām - Alif ( لا ).
Formation and development of the character
The invention of the grapheme Hamza is closely associated with a change in meaning of the letters Alif, which took off around the 8th century, the function as a sign for the glottal stop, and instead came as a vowel -strain characters in use.
The Arabic script evolved from the Nabataean script probably, a consonantal script, in which - as in most Semitic alphabets - a glottal stop with the letter alaf was noted. In Aramaic this was articulated According increasingly weakened; in Nabataean took alaf the additional function of the character for a final / ā /. Alaf had thus already at this stage of its development, two functions ( characters for glottal and long / ā / ), but also the expansion of a short / a / to long / was only with the Alif Arabic script ā / marked in the middle of a word:
Only shortly before the time of action of the philologists al - Farahidi ( 8th century ) were long / ā / marked with a small superscript alif, however, gone over, instead Alif to put a mater lectionis. The editorial board of the Koran had been completed; be consonant skeleton was considered God-given - to change it was not allowed, but you could add (small or colored ) characters. The substitution of ( red ) alifs as strain characters was inconsistent, with no fixed plan and in several periods. In the course of time was - particularly in the Ottoman Empire - from red alifs normal alifs. In the Koran Cairene edition from 1924 were taken over five thousand such inserted Dehungsalif again from the text and replaced by superscript small alifs. Even in modern Arabic is in a few words go a long / ā / sound not written with Alif as mater lectionis but with this optional auxiliary character.
Early systems to differentiate the vocalic and consonantal features of a character used for this purpose different variants of additional points. A yellow or green dot, which also expressed his position above, beside or below the carrier signs the vocalization, showed the correct articulation of the wearer as Hamz; on another system of the glottal was marked by placing the double vowel point on both sides of the carrier label.
The presumed origin of the present label for the glottal stop in Arabic script ( ء ) is prevalent, such as by Richard Lepsius and Kees Versteegh, in the initial shape of the letter ʿ Ain ( ع ), the sign for the voiced pharyngeal fricative [ ʕ ], the sound quality of the Hamza came closest. Heinrich Alfred Barb, however, cited several examples from the Arab and Persian language, from which he derived a modification to Hamza from the isolated form of the Ya ʾ without points ( ى ). However, according to Theodor Nöldeke Barbs assumption is " quite inaccurate ".
As the inventor of the sign in its present form is valid according to the Historiolinguisten Versteegh the Arab grammarian Abū l - Aswad ad -Du ʾ alī (7th century). Abū l - Aswad started to insert small ʿ Ain in texts where a waw, ya ʾ alif or in the dialects of the Hijaz as a long vowel in the Koran but pronounce than the glottal stop. The Orientalist Gotthold Weil writes this innovation, however, to al - Farahidi. In the use of Alif as a mater lectionis saw al - Farahidi so because a likelihood of confusion with the glottal stop, and marked the Alif consonantal used therefore with a higher set bookmark.
Initially there was always a Hamza Alif Kursi. While Hamz in classical Arabic has Phonemcharakter, he was maintained in non -classical Arabic, which is based on the Arabic orthography only in word-initial and transliterated in the form of Alif. In all other positions Hamz was attenuated omitted or replaced by a stretch of the preceding vowel by different types of Al- Tachfīf Hamza / y /, or / w /. In the orthography of Classical Arabic that sign was the bearer of Hamzazeichens, which represented the attenuated or replaced glottal stop in the non-classical orthography - hence Ya ʾ and WAW were possible Hamzaträger. If accounted for in the non-classical Arabic Hamz, the classical orthography received a Hamza without support.
Hamza and the Arabic alphabet
Arab scholars both at Hamza and Alif at disagree as to whether this can be described as letters of the Arabic alphabet. In the classical doctrine Alif has the status as a letter: Alif can be derived from the Phoenician alphabet, and is thus much older than Hamza. However, Hamza is the sound that represented the predecessor of Alif.
The linguist al - Farahidi counted in the 8th century 27 or 28 letters in the Arabic alphabet ( whether he stroked Hamza / Alif from the alphabet or refused him only the first place can not be determined ), his pupil Sībawaih 29 - he recognized both as Hamza also Alif as letters. Abū al - ʿ Abbās al - Mubarrad, a grammarian from the 9th century, Hamza struck out his alphabet, as it had changed its appearance several times and no letter is with fixed shape, Alif recorded at the end of the alphabet, and thus came to 28 letters. The Orientalist Gotthold Weil refers to the taking of both Alif and Hamza in the alphabet as " linguistically and historically inaccurate " - Hamza and the strain Alif had until the invention of the grapheme Hamza a common form, as well as today, the letter waw and Ya ʾ, also with dual function as a consonant and as a strain characters.
"Especially in the history of the sound Alif in Arabic, you can tell how much does the lack of knowledge of Semitic languages at the Arab National grammarians felt. With the help of those can be seen, namely, that the Hamza is an alphabet essentially alien part that it innately only one bookmark is [ ... ] that also the name of the first letters of the alphabet Alif means that course only lautbarer in this capacity consonant may be because there are no vowels in the Semitic alphabet, and that, finally, Alif, و and ى [ ... ] lectionis as matres or strain letters are to be treated in the chapter of the vowels. "
Hamza in the Arabic language
In the Arabic language Hamza grapheme for the phoneme Hamz, which corresponds to the Phon high- Arab [ ʔ ] ( glottal voiceless plosive ). The rules governing the spelling of Hamza in modern standard Arabic have some differences to the orthography of the Qur'an. In modern Arabic also an alif with Madda contains the phoneme Hamz ( followed by / ā / ), whereas the Madda in the Quran is a pure Längungszeichen that can be placed not only on Alif.
Hamza and Madda are graphemes for the Hamzat al - qat ʿ / همزة القطع / Hamzatu l - qat ʿ /, cutting Hamza ', also called Trennungsalif at the beginning of the word. Hamzatu l - qat ʿ is a full consonant ' also appears as radical as in قرأ / qara ʾ a /, read, be geminiert with a Shadda and can occur at any position in the word. Wasla, grapheme for a " Hilfshamza " ( Hamzat al - wasl / همزة الوصل / Hamzatu l - Wasl /, coupling Hamza '), however, exists only in word-initial and includes a Hamz only in absolute initial position.
If Hamza above or below a support vowel, this is indeed an indication of the correct pronunciation, but not even pronounce. The case of Hamza subject to detailed rules, but Hamza be omitted at the beginning of the word often.
The Arabic article al - / ال is still not assimilated at Moon letters beginning with Hamza words.
Hamza - write rules in Modern Standard Arabic
At the beginning of the word Hamza is always above or below a Alif - conversely carries an alif at the beginning of the word always Hamza, Wasla or Madda, but is omitted the setting of Hamza and often on the Wasla more often. Is the word beginning is not the same as the beginning of a string ( in Arabic are the products al and consists of only one letter prepositions, conjunctions and particles such as wa - / و /, and ' bi- / ب /, with, by ' and li / ل /, for' to the following word attached ), but the writing rules for Hamza apply the word beginning.
Under the Alif Hamza is set when the glottal stop, a short or long / i / sound follows (examples: إسلام / ʾ Islam, إيمان / ʾ Īmān / 'faith' ). Follows a short or long / u /, a diphthong, or a short / a /, the Hamza comes on to the Alif ( أم / ʾ umm / 'mother', أول / ʾ Auwal / 'beginning', أمر / ʾ amara /, command '). Starts the word with glottal stop and a long / ā /, Alif Madda is to put ( آل / ʾ Al /, clan '). Unvokalisierten a consonant at the beginning of the word does not know the Arabic language, this also applies to Hamza.
Middle of a word
How Hamza is to write in the middle of words, determine the two surrounding the Hamza sounds, the sound immediately before the Hamza is ignored if it is a long vowel or diphthong.
If Hamza unvocalized and thus follows it by a consonant, the vowel is before Hamza crucial: Is that vowel / i /, Hamza is a Ya ʾ, with a / u / a WAW, with a / a / a Alif to write ( بئر / bi ʾ r /, fountains ', مؤمن / mu ʾ min /, confessors, creditors ' رأس / ra ʾ s /, head '). Follow Hamza on a non- vocalized consonant is the same principle of after Hamza following vowel critical, but Hamza obtained by one of ya ʾ always a (nother ) Ya ʾ as a carrier.
If Hamza between two vowels, Hamza is to put on a Ya ʾ if at least one of the two surrounding vowels a / i / is ( رئة / ri ʾ a /, lung '). Knocks Hamza on at least a / u /, but not on a / i /, there comes a Vav ( سؤال / su ʾ Al /, Q '). About a Alif Hamza is only set if both surrounding vowels / a / are ( سأل / sa ʾ ala / ask '). In / ā ʾ a /, / ā ʾ ā / and / ū ʾ a / Hamza is no carrier to write "on the line " ( قراءة / Qira ʾ a /, reading '), this prevents the direct encounter of two Alif in the typeface. Is according to the rules mentioned so far with a hamza Alif to write as a carrier, the Alif follows as expansion characters for the long / ā / sound, Alif is to contact Madda ( قرآن / qur ʾ ān /, Koran ').
End of word
Follow Hamza word-final short vowel, this is crucial for the case of Hamza. Again in this case is that Hamza for a / i / on ya ʾ, about WAW to a / u / and an alif after a / a / to write is ( قارئ / Qari ʾ / readers ' لؤلؤ / lu ʾ lu ʾ /, pearl ', خطأ / Hata ʾ / errors " ). After a long vowel, diphthong or consonant Hamza unvokalisierten without carrier is written "on the line " ( ماء / mā ʾ / 'water', شيء / Sai ʾ /, thing ', بطء / BUT ʾ /, delay '). Is Hamza at the end of words vocalized ( means that the glottal stop or a short vowel followed by ), the spelling changed only if Alif with Hamza a Kasra or Kasratān follows - Hamza is then put under Alif ( خطإ / Hata ʾ in ). In stammauslautendem / -a ʾ / is always Alif Hamzaträger.
Advance Hamza by a suffix in the middle of words, the rules of the center position are, in principle, with two exceptions:
- Follow Hamza a character that can not be connected to the left ( ا د ذ ر ز و ), and it is vocalized with Fatha, there is no carrier
- Follow Hamza a non- vocalized Ya ʾ ya ʾ stands as a carrier
If Hamza in connection with the extension of the indefinite accusative with Fathatan ( nunation ), again special rules apply: If Fathatan otherwise always an alif or alif maqsura which have as Fathatan carrier not have its own phonetic value, or Tā ʾ marbuta put, is the to put Fathatan directly over a strapless Hamza, if it / follows a Alif as a sign of a long / a. If a word ends with a Alif as Hamzaträger, Fathatan must be notified of this character. Follows Hamza only an alif with Fathatan, the rules of the center position apply. If Hamza second to last grapheme in the word between ya ʾ alif and with Fathatan, Hamza is with ya ʾ to write as a carrier.
Ya ʾ Hamza with the last character of a word, is in its place the spelling with a strapless Hamza after a loose points ya ʾ also in use ( قارىء ).
These rules are not recognized by all and there are occasional deviations. In / a ʾ ū / Alif often is used as Hamzaträger in / ū ʾ ū / a Ya ʾ Hamza or without carrier. When / ī ʾ ū /, / ā ʾ ū / and / ū ʾ / after a consonant is often ya ʾ used as Hamzaträger. On these points, there are several partly contradictory doctrines. In older orthographies the meeting of the same letter was often avoided ( as a support character of Hamza and as consonants or strain characters ) by Hamza is set without a carrier ( رءوس / ru ʾ U.S., today usually رؤوس, sometimes even without a sign of vocal strain رؤس ).
In تأريخ / ta ʾ RIH /, dating, history ' accounted for over time the articulation of the set on Alif Hamza, today is both in pronunciation and in the orthography تاريخ / Tarih usual. As an " isolated case of historical orthography " means Wolf Dietrich Fischer the spelling مائة instead of مئة / mi ʾ a /, hundred '; the classical orthography used in the word inside after a long vowel or sukun always Hamza " on the line ". Be found especially in older manuscripts spellings that contradict the currently valid spelling. The deviations range from the neglect of Hamza in final word inside or on the omission of Hamza to the support characters up to a substitution by Ya ʾ.
Hamza in the Quran
In the Qur'an Hamza is in addition to the manifestations of modern standard Arabic and strapless above and below the line (,) and not only, but also from a Ya ʾ. A strapless Hamza over the line between Lām and Alif does not affect the formation of the ligature Lām - Alif.
The writing rules of Hamza in the Qur'an differ from those of modern standard Arabic: After a sukun a Hamza is set in the middle of words without a carrier either on or above the line. Hamza with Kasra in the medial position is set does not have a Ya ʾ, but among them, the remains Ya ʾ any points. To avoid two identical characters consecutively, Hamza is strapless written when it otherwise would have WAW ʾ as a carrier facing another Waw or Ya ʾ as a carrier facing another YA. Alif shall be void as Hamzaträger before or after another Alif, therefore words with Hamza on the line followed by a Alif can in some Korans start (Example: ءامنوا, Modern Standard Arabic, however آمنوا ). Madda is in all Korans always Längungszeichen and does not contain a glottal stop.
Two more Hamza variants are transmitted in Maghreb Korans: Ya ʾ reserves in these as Hamzaträger its diacritical points, with Alif as Hamza Kursi immersed in three instead of only two different layers on. Below a Alif However, Hamza is as elsewhere for a vocalization with / i /, over the Alif only for vocalization with / a /. A with / u / vokalisiertes Kursi - Alif Hamza wears at his side at half height.
In the Qur'an, however, find many variations in the spelling of Hamza. Theodor Nöldeke According comes "when showing this consonant [ ... ] most the awkwardness of the oldest Qorânschreiber to the fore ." In the dialect of the Quraysh, the Arab tribe to which the Prophet Muhammad belonged, a hamza is usually not or been articulated as [j ] or [w ], which have had great influence on the Quranic orthography, as well as on hidschāzische readings of the Koran but not to other Arab dialects. Hamza is often omitted when it follows a consonant unvokalisierten, a / a / projects or follows, or if two identical characters would collide. Separates Hamza two different vowels in their quality, the Koran writer expressed, so Nöldeke, in many cases, "strange" from.
When transliteration centering or transcribing Arabic texts into Latin alphabet a Hamza is not played at the beginning of the word in many transcriptions. The transcription or transliteration of Hamza takes place at DMG and EI as a modifying right semicircle (< ʾ > ), 233 with an emphasis on characters (<> if with support characters, alone < ˌ > ), with at ISO in the transcription of UNGEGN and ALA apostrophe ( ' '>). The inscription of a Madda done as transcription of Hamza followed by transcription of Alif (at ISO 233 but as < ʾ â > ).
In "Chat Arabic" numeral <2 > is set for a Hamza. The Morse code for ( a standalone ) Hamza is < • >; the ( Clockwise ) Arabic Braille knows for Hamza depending on carrier sign various correspondences.
Hamza in other languages
The Hamza is also part of several Arabic -based writing systems of other languages , assumes there but often additional or different features than in Arabic. Be cited here only languages in which transcends that of the Hamza - character function of the of the grapheme for the glottal stop - the rules for the posting of this sound can still contradict those of the Arabic language in not listed here languages.
In writing of the Persian language Hamza ( Hamze ) immersed one hand in words of Persian origin on the other hand, in words of Arabic origin. In words of Arabic origin, it may appear in the medial or final position, Hamza is written those words without support characters or Alif ( Alef Persian ), Vav ( Vav ) or Ya ʾ (Ye ). The spelling of the Hamza, however, not always coincides with the in the original Arabic, and since such Hamza in the Persian remains unspoken, it is not always written.
" For the correct spelling are for the most part establishes rules to the form ئ yet loses nothing of its popularity. "
In words of Persian origin Hamze can mark a Ezāfe extension. About an HA ʾ ( He) at the end of a word it shows the ending / eye / on, on a Ye the suffix / - iye /, but the Hamze in these two as well as in the other cases is not always set, found in modern texts, also instead of the He set up a Hamze him trailing isolated Ye. This " Persian hämzä " had said Sebastian Beck in his Grammar of New Persian (1914), from a set on Ye ( always ى any points in Persian ), whose phonetic value is in this form. The Unicode character still bears the name " Arabic letter He at about Ye "; However, Beck himself calls this set are signs - according to its modern form - hämza.
Obsolete is the case with Ye Ye Hamze before another according to the vowels / â / and / u / - in their place two normal Ye are now set. Also no longer in use with Hey Hamze for the ending / ei /, which is now written with He- Aleph- Ye, where He and Alif are not connected (example خامنهای Khamenei ).
Also in some foreign words, for example in Gāzuil / گازوئيل /, gas oil ', Hamza shows the change between two vowels.
Sorani Kurdish -
The Kurdish Sorani - used, similar to the Uighur, a < ئ > before most vowels at the beginning of the word. Only the / i / sound, which is not written at other positions in the word, is not introduced into initial position with < ئ > but written as alif < ا >; < ئا > as a digraph for an initial / a / can be replaced by < آ >.
In the Pashtun font Hamza is as a diacritical mark over the letter hā ʾ ( Pashtun- HA- yi Hutti ) and Ya ʾ ( Je) in use. Hā -yi Hutti with Hamza, the letter Dze ( ځ ), is [ dz ] or [ z] pronounced regional differences as; According to Hamza ( Fe'li Je) is one of the five represented in the Pashtun variants of Je and stands for the ending [- əy ] with verbs in the 2nd person plural.
In the Peshawar orthography can be found - in allusion to the writing of Urdu - a Bari Ye and HA ʾ ( hā -yi hawwaz ) with übergesetztem Hamza, each as a sign of vowels at the end of the word. Hā -yi hawwaz with Hamza is a sign of the Vokalauslaut / -a /, the Bari YE Hamza replaced with the characters sometimes Fe'li The Ṣchadzina and more.
The Ezāfe suffix / - ʾ i / is marked by appending a Hamza. In Arab foreign words to find the Hamzaformen the Arabic language.
In Ormuri, a Southeastern Iranian language of South Waziristan with about 1000 speakers, there is the sound [ r], for the Ra ʾ with Hamza is set. The sound occurs in any other Indo-Iranian language. The affricate [ dz ] is verschriftlicht as HA ʾ with Hamza.
Hamza has in the writing of Urdu various functions and dives " on the line " as to how about ya ʾ ( Urdu: Choti Ye), WAW (WAO ), Choti He ( has the function of the HA ʾ of Arabic, but only isolated the same form ) Bari and Ye.
Firstly Hamza separates two vowels. In the case of إن شاءاالله, " Inshallah ", the spelling " on the line " is retained from the original Arabic. If the second vowel [i ː ] or [ e], represented by Choti Ye or Ye Bari, the Hamza sitting in front of that paragraph on a " chair" ( ≈ Choti Ye). If the second vowel a short [ ɪ ], this is also represented by a Hamza on a " chair". If the second vowel is represented by a WAO [u ː ] or [ o], the Hamza can be set to the WAO, but is often omitted. Be reproduced without Hamza also the vowel combinations [i ː ɑ ], [i ː e] and [i ː o].
A second purpose of the Hamza is identifying the Ezafe ( Izāfat ). In Urdu a Izāfat after Choti Ye or a consonant with the optional vowel signs Zer (corresponds to the Arabic Kasra ) marks; for a bari ye it remains unverschriftet. Ends HE the first word of Izāfat microstructure with a choti, a Hamza is set to mark the Izāfat about this character; completes the first word with a Alif or WAO, the Izāfat is characterized by a Ye Bari, on the one Hamza can be set.
In order to use information in the Islamic calendar Gregorian dates differ, be Islamic with a Dō - čašmī Hey, Gregorian time entries with a Hamza provided ( ھ 1234 for 1234 AH; ء 2004 for 2004 AD. ). The Hamza of the dates is a substitute for a small ʿ Ain, the first letter of عيسوى / īsawī / "Christian" - in manuscripts and good type set in the year in a small upstanding ʿ Ain is adjusted. Another function of the single Hamza is that of a decimal (example: 2000 ء 50 for 2000.50 ).
In the Arabic script of the Kashmiri Hamza two different forms are used for vocalization. About Put a Hamza for the sound [ ə ], under set for the sound [ ɨ ] - the "normal" Hamza Hamza is a corrugated shape it for a short vowel and set for a long vowel.
For a vowel in initial position, the Hamza is to be set above or below Alif, a short [ ə ] in final position is transliterated with Hamza on hA ʾ. In the other positions Hamza is set above or below the immediately preceding consonants.
The Arabic script of Sindhi knows a hamza with two adjacent vertical lines below ( ۽ ) as a sign for the word " and". The decimal point of the Arabic script of Sindhi is the Hamza similar in shape. The Hamza on ya ʾ, as well as word-final the lone Hamza, as hiatus characters in use.
In the Arabic script of the Uighur language Hamza exist " on a tooth " ( ئ ). This character is (example Uyghur / ئۇيغۇر - before the u / ۇ the beginning of the word is a < ئ >, the same vowel is in the second syllable without Hamza ) as an integral part of the isolated and the initial shape of the vowel signs and thought is set before each vowel signs on syllables or word beginning. The first character of a word takes over < ئ > thus the function of a dummy letters, holding an initial Alif standing about in the Pashtun.
If < ئ > medially or word-finally, it represents a hiatus, a syllable boundary; in the pronunciation of this medial Hamza is often realized as a long vowel pronounced. " Hamza on a tooth " in this function is also not considered as a separate letter, but as a special notation of vowels in middle or end and usually occurs in words of Arabic origin, where it replaces a ʿ Ain or Hamza of Arabic origin word.
" Hamza on a tooth " comes in the middle of words before a few exceptions only in foreign and loan words. In the other writings of the Uighur is a hiatus, if at all, only marks in the middle of a word with a grapheme.
The Arabic script of the Kazakh language in use in the autonomous province of Xinjiang in the People's Republic of China, used a "high Hamza " is a word beginning with a vowel sound of the series / æ, ø, i, ʏ to identify /. The high Hamza may be in combination with Alif, Waw, Ya ʾ and U - the same characters without high Hamza represent the vowel sequence / a, o, ɯ, u /.
In the Arabic -based writing Xiao'erjing Hamza is in various forms part of some Silbenendlaute and vowels. Glottisschläge, although they are phonemic in Chinese, not transliterated in Xiao'erjing.
In Unicode, the Hamza is coded not only as a combining diacritical mark, but also in isolated form and as a unit with a support character. The high Hamza the Kazakh- Arabic script is encoded with both his possible companions as a unit as well as a combining character, the corrugated Hamza of Kashmiri only with Alif as a carrier.
In Arabic Unicode block all Hamza variants to find on the Re with Hamza, which is incorporated in block Arabic, supplement. These signs of their position in the word automatically adjust accordingly and appear in isolated, final, medial or initial form. In blocks Arabic Presentation Forms -A and Arabic Presentation Forms- B, a large part of the characters is once again available and, in addition some ligatures. The sign of the latter two Unicode blocks not adapt to their position in the word.
In Windows 1256, MacArabic, ISO 8859, ISO 8859-6, Code Page 708, Code Page 720 and code page 864 respectively Hamza and Madda variants of the Arabic language are coded. ArabTeX adapted to the needs of all listed here Arabic writings, including the Quranic Arabic. In Arabic keyboard layouts, the final combinations of support letters plus Hamza and Madda can usually be found next to Hamza and Madda.