Haus des Rundfunks
The House of Broadcasting is an architecturally and historically significant building broadcast over the radio tower in Berlin's Westend district of the district of Charlottenburg -Wilmersdorf. Its main facade extends along the Masurenallee. Since May 2003 it is the seat of broadcasting Berlin -Brandenburg ( RBB). In the House of broadcasting radio programs Radio Berlin 88.8, cultural radio and INFOradio are produced. The two studios of serve for public concerts.
- 2.1 Large Sendesaal
- 2.2 Small Sendesaal
- 2.3 radio play complex
Architectural history and the first years of use until 1945
Designed by Hans Poelzig building with the floor plan of a rounded on two sides of the triangle was built in the years 1929/1930 under the supervision of master students Poelzig Max H. Berling. Responsible for the interior design was Kurt Liebknecht, who would influence two decades later the first President of the German Academy of Architecture, the alignment of architectural studies in the early GDR prevail. The house of broadcasting was inaugurated on 22 January 1931. The site is bordered by the north Bredtschneiderstraße, east stand by on the surface two modern individual buildings, each with eight floors and a four-storey car park. The Soorstrasse forms the boundary. And the Reichs- Rundfunk -Gesellschaft from the House of Broadcasting: radio - hour Berlin, the German wave GmbH ( Germany transmitter from 1933) sent from 1931. There began on 22 March 1935, the German television broadcast ( DFR ) its operation. The first regular television program in Germany was on the adjacent radio tower by the TV broadcast Paul Nipkow ( → History of television in Germany ). As of 1937, the DFR program was in Germany at the nearby house Adolf- Hitler-Platz (today: Theodor -Heuss -Platz) produced. From 1939 to 1945, the House of Broadcasting was the headquarters of the Greater German Radio.
Under Soviet Director 1945-1956
On 2 May 1945 Major Popov occupied with a company of the Red Army the house of broadcasting. As a broadcasting expert he knew the building because he had worked from 1931 to 1933 as an engineer intern here. From 4 May first calls and messages were sent under Soviet leadership. On May 13, In 1945, a regular broadcasting operation.
After the Second World War the house was at the mercy of the Cold War. With the division into four sectors, British, French and Americans began in sectors with your own radio programs (North West German Broadcasting and RIAS ).
Although located in the UK sector, it served until 1950, the area controlled by the Soviet occupying power Berliner Rundfunk. In the House of Broadcasting, the Soviets built in silence from the technical equipment and spent them in their sector in the newly built house Nalepastraße radio in East Berlin.
In 1952 the British army locked it off in response to the closure Steinstücken.
Until the passing of the Soviet Military Command on July 5, 1956, the Berlin Senate, represented by the West Berlin Mayor Otto Suhr, located every 14 days exchanged a each 10 - to 15 -strong guard detachment in guarding the empty building from. During this time, probably the Cyrillic characters have been carved into the plaster. This " graffiti " were discovered during renovation work on the facade of 1998/1999 and preserved because of its importance as a document for the eventful history of the house and documented.
Since 1957, Sender Freies Berlin / Berlin-Brandenburg Broadcasting
After extensive renovation, the building Sender Freies Berlin ( SFB) was used from late 1957 to produce and broadcast his radio programs. Since the Soviets had dismantled and taken the entire studio technology, the building had to be equipped with completely new technology. Thus, the SFB was in the house of broadcasting pioneer in the development of stereophonic and their use in radio broadcasting. On 1 May 2003, the SFB went on (RBB ) with its programs and buildings in the Rundfunk Berlin- Brandenburg.
The House of Broadcasting in 1930 one of the first radio building in Europe, older is just the Munich Broadcasting House. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that the building still provides ideal spatial conditions for radio operation. Hans Poelzig at that time had hardly role models and placed on considerations that are valid to this day: the office and editorial rooms are located on the outer sides of the building and surround the three major studio complexes, which are so largely shielded from the street noise. In the office and editorial tract only the exterior walls are load-bearing; All of the intermediate walls can therefore be removed and installed according to requirements of the variable chamber size. Since there are often changes in the composition of the editorial offices and partitions are added, the exact number of spaces varies constantly.
The large studio is the heart of the building. He went into operation in 1931 and presents itself in the 21st century in the appearance of 1959., The paneling made of elm veneer a single Scottish elm to a uniform aging of wood to guarantee. A large part of the folding seats 1081 is already received at that time, different holes, thereby they have almost the same absorption characteristics, such as in the presence of a viewer in the unoccupied state. So the acoustics of the hall in the occupied and unoccupied state is very similar, which facilitates the preparation of audio recordings. The reverberation is 1.6 seconds. The large studio also has its own - independent from the rest of the building - foundation, so as to prevent the transmission of vibrations through the floor. As the importance of orchestral music has fallen on the radio in the last few decades continues, fewer public concerts than in the 1960s and 1970s are taking place now considerably. However, the large studio also serves as a test site for the Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin.
The Little Radio Hall is located in the state of the opening year 1931. The walls here are equipped with folding elements. Reflecting one side, the other side absorbs the sound. Thus, the variety of reverberation times can be set. The hall is now used for chamber music, jazz concerts and a series of special events.
Radio play complex
Mirroring the Little Sendesaal is the radio play complex, which has been completely modernized spatially and technically in 2005. Here there is a large reception space with a long reverberation time and a staircase with different toppings. This hall is also used for smaller public events, for example, to preview performance of radio plays and features. A medium-sized recording room about the size of a living room has a fold-down wall elements for changing the acoustics also exist other optimized for sound recordings internals, such as a kitchen and a toilet. All these rooms have no parallel walls to prevent the formation of flutter echoes. In addition, an anechoic chamber allows the simulation of acoustics, such as prevails outside of enclosed buildings. In this room, walk-in different surfaces such as wood planks and gravel are present in order to produce a realistic acoustics can. The entire complex is uncoupled radio play as a house -in- house - design of the ambient noise. All rooms are technically connected ( to some extent on the studio window) with the control room, where the sound engineer and the radio drama director make and monitor the recording.