Health management is the well-planned organization more or less complex social and socio- political measures for the purpose of maintaining and increasing the health of the population.
Health management involves a variety of tasks and functions to organize health, especially in the form of health promotion. It is rooted in a biopsychosocial understanding of health. The aim is to strengthen health coping processes such as adequate health care. Is implemented health management in health and social institutions, such as the self-help group on the welfare up to the institutions of health, accident and pension insurance, known as Social Security. Second, tasks are referred to as the planning, organization, control, regulation and evaluation of health-related services (see Niehoff, J.-U., Brown, B., 2003, p 107).
Methodologically is health management an interdisciplinary subject, integrates several disciplines such as social medicine, health economics, medical law and medical sociology and is systematically the health sciences, particularly in the expression of " New Public Health" ( cf. Mann, B., 2005, Waller, H., 2002 ). In the context of the public health goals of the World Health Organization ( WHO) health management is a strategic approach of " health for all". As a corporate health management of this health approach has received a scientific and practical development.
Schwartz and Wismar ( 1998, pp. 560-564 ) refer to four basic orientations of management; they are rooted in the concept of goal- oriented management ( management by objectives ):
- Population- or community- based
- Provider- oriented
- Patient-, client - and consumer- oriented
Population or community- based
This is a " classic European access to the organization of health care " (cf. Schwartz / Wismar, 1998, p 561 ) on the background of the idea of a population-based care. In the UK, it should be mentioned as an example the National Health Service, in Germany the statutory health insurance with an insurance rate of around 89%. Traditionally, local or regional references are also found in Sweden.
Provider oriented management concepts relate to the demand planning and ensuring the supply side, for example, by hospitals and other health care facilities (see Goldschmidt AJW / Hilbert J, 2011 ), human resources management with the question of the function and the management of human labor in institutions of health services and technology planning ( cf. Schwartz / Wismar, 1998, p 562 ). A distinction is made in an instrumental and physical health needs. The instrumental requirements relating to available resources for treatment, such as outpatient care, inpatient care, beds or doctors. The real needs can further strained supply services include such as health promotion in the workplace ( Workplace Health Promotion ) or in schools ( eg healthy life learning), traffic calming, environmental protection and social workers in medical practices ( ibid. ).
Patient and consumer -oriented
To define patients' needs consistently is difficult because it involves subjective patient needs. However, in general it can be stated that the need is seen that patients have the ability to enforce their rights. The patient orientation, as Schwartz and Wismar, is in German literature in health management - unlike in the USA - only at the beginning (p. 563). International patient orientation is discussed on three levels (ibid.):
- Patient -Oriented Management of Quality
- Management of service
- Consumerism approach
At the heart of a patient Orient management of quality are the health-specific " customer" needs, (TQM ) are discussed as under the total quality management approach. Management of services analyzed health care as part of a service economy. Consumerism approach is based on the controversial discussion of consumer sovereignty of the patient, especially since the choices in health care between different services significant restrictions ( p. 564).
The background for this view is the combination of a growing supply needs with increasing financing problems. In this context, this is called a " system-dependent control problem in health care" ( cf. Schwartz / Wismar, p.25) interpreted. This funding guide has won in most industrial society health importance. Also at the system level can be observed " outcome-oriented objective discussion" one. It is based on the actual health outcomes in patients and populations.
The core competences refer firstly to the analysis of historical, sociological and economic dimensions of health security. Here, the social security, including conflicts wins in this system is of great importance. Other core competencies include secondly, the social ability to know about the interests and problems of health-related services. Because the justification and evaluation of future options for systemic and economic organization of health services is an important objective.
In addition to the core competencies of other skills ( " skills" ) are shown (see Niehoff, Brown, 2003, p 107):
Study programs and degrees
Degrees or professional titles in healthcare management are usually purchased as an additional qualification, rare are undergraduate courses. Often an economics postgraduate studies done to accompany the medical profession. The final takes place depending on the scope or level of education with a certificate or degree.