Heineken N.V. [ Ɦɛinəkən ] is a Dutch brewery, which was founded on February 15, 1864 by Gerard Adriaan Heineken. It is the third largest brewery group in the world after Anheuser -Busch InBev and SABMiller. Main owner is the Heineken Holding N.V. with 50.005 %, which in turn 58.78 % of L' Arche Green NV is controlled. L' Arche Green 88.42 % belongs to the descendants of Alfred Heineken.
On February 15, 1864 Gerard Adriaan Heineken bought with the support of his mother at the age of 22 years, the brewery De Hooiberg - then the largest in the area - in Amsterdam. There beer produced since 1592. Until 1886, top-fermented, then made the German model bottom-fermented beer.
Through an aggressive pricing policy has been successful Heineken to prevail until 1912 against its toughest competitors Oranje Boom, van Vollenhoven and the German breweries in the domestic market. 1931, the first overseas branch was opened in Surabaya, Indonesia. The production amounted to 200,000 hl per year ( the average production of the competition was approximately 3000 hl per year).
1936 Heineken has established with the soft drink company Fraser and Neave today's Asian Pacific Breweries. In these early investments based the prevalence of Heineken in the Asian region. From the late 1930s, the company expanded in the U.S. and increasingly put emphasis on advertising.
In the 1950s, the company then had sales problems in the domestic market and has been maintained by the foreign markets. Until the late 1960s the domestic market position could be consolidated, only to foreign breweries whose markets were saturated to be harassed. This was mainly due to the acquisition of the Dutch competition from foreign breweries.
In the 1970s, Heineken went more and more to award licenses to foreign breweries and thus broadening its market position abroad. The brand helped to gain a foothold demand of U.S. tourists to Heineken beer in the Caribbean. Towards the end of the 1980s, the sales growth in the U.S. a ten-fold increase of imported beer brands from 30 to 300 in the U.S. ends in front of the background in a period from the 1940s to the 1980s.
In the 1990s, Heineken was then - after the "simple" markets were conquered - forced to devote so difficult markets like Germany, with its fragmented, local flavor beer market. By 2000, it had then brought the company to the number two in the world market with a production of 98 million hectoliters per year. In 2009, Heineken announced the Scottish brewer Scottish & Newcastle on the Danish competitor Carlsberg beer and took over the division of the Mexican conglomerate FEMSA.
In 2010, Heineken ranks after Anheuser -Busch InBev, SAB Miller and before Carlsberg as number 3 among the world's breweries. With an export share of 19 million hectoliters in 170 countries Heineken is the most widely used brand of beer in the world. In the Netherlands, Heineken has today a market share of more than 50 %. There manufactures and distributes Heineken among its subsidiary Vrumona also soft drinks like Pepsi. In Finland Heineken produces both beer and soft drinks (including Pepsi ) under the name Hartwall.
Heineken stops, founded in 2002 German Brau Holding International ( BHI) 49.9 %; the majority of 50.1 % is held by Schörghuber Group from Munich. To BHI include such well-known German brands such as Hacker-Pschorr, Paulaner or Kulmbach. The proportion of the Saarland Brewery Karl Berg was released to the owner Weber Family in the Year 2009 by the BWI an additional payment in the millions again.
Heineken took over in 1993, the Grisons brewery Calanda Bräu, to which, since 1989, Winterthur's Brewery stockpile belonged, 1999, then abandoned the brewing of beer in Winterthur and moved production to Chur. Besides the beer fills Calanda under the name Calanda Aqua also a mineral water from. By 2009 Churchill was the headquarters of Heineken Switzerland. With the purchase of the largest independent Swiss Eichhof brewery in Lucerne the headquarters of Heineken Switzerland was moved to Lucerne. In addition, Heineken has taken over the small thurgauer monastery brewery Ittinger.
In 2003, Heineken took over the majority of shares in the Austrian market leader Brau Union. This now are some of Austria's most famous beer brands owned by Heineken, including Gosser, Zipfer, Kaiser, Wieselburger, Puntigamer, Schwechat, edelweiss and Castle Gold ( non-alcoholic).
Some major brands of Heineken are:
- 33 Export, France
- Affligem, Belgium
- Almaza, Lebanon
- Amstel, The Netherlands
- Bintang, Indonesia
- Birra Moretti, Italy
- Bralima, Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Fire, The Netherlands
- Cruz Campo, Spain
- Calanda, Switzerland
- Dos Equis, Mexico
- Desperados, France
- Dreher, Trieste and Budapest
- Eichhof, Switzerland
- Foster's, Australia ( in most of Europe )
- Gosser, Austria (Styria )
- Hacker-Pschorr, Munich
- Heineken, The Netherlands
- Kaiser, Austria (Lower Austria )
- Karlovačko, Croatia
- Kingfisher, India
- Kulmbach, Kulmbach
- Lapin Kulta, Finland
- Murphy's, Ireland
- Newcastle Brown Ale, UK
- Paulaner, Munich
- Sagres, Portugal
- Sol, Mexico
- Starobrno, Czech Republic
- Strongbow ( cider ), UK
- Zipfer, Austria (Upper Austria )
- Zlatý Bažant, Slovakia
- Żywiec, Poland
Breach of competition law
In April 2007, against Heineken - in addition to the other participating Dutch brewers or subsidiaries of Grolsch, Bavaria and InBev - in a competition investigation by the European Commission for collusion in the Dutch beer market in the years 1996 to 1999, a fine of around 219 million euros imposed. Against this decision before the Commission on July 3, 2007 Heineken action for annulment before the then Court of First Instance. By judgment of 16 June 2011, the General Court ruled that the action of Heineken is justified only in terms of individual aspects and rejected the rest. The fine was therefore reduced to an amount of 198 million euros.