As a Hiberno - English or Irish English ( rare, and falsely, " Anglo- Irish" ) are collectively the regional variants of the English language refers to spoken on the island of Ireland.
Man, however, this term must be different from the term " Anglo -Irish ", which is used in the field of literary studies.
Origin and history
The English was introduced in Ireland in two main phases. For the first time it was brought from the late 12th century by those soldiers and later settlers, the English (and not the Norman or Welsh language ) helped themselves. The resulting dialects based due to time constraints on the Middle English, mainly because of the contact to England remained fairly sparse on time. Since the cultural policy of the Anglo-Normans and English at this time, however, crowned by small successes saw - most of the new settlers took over not only the native customs, but also the Irish language - was this version of English to a few areas along the east coast of Ireland limited. Up until the 18th or even 19th century survived two of these ancient dialects: in a small area north of Dublin and in the Forth and Bargy region in the county of Wexford.
The view from today's far more important phase of the introduction of English in Ireland began in the 16th century with the so-called Plantations. This led to a permanent settlement of English-speaking families in a large part of the country. Since it was new settlers, they spoke the contemporary Early Modern English and not, as the earlier settlers of the same origin, local versions of the Middle English. As a demarcation latter are therefore in the sources and in research often as Old ( e ) English called. Go to this Frühneuenglische ultimately all of today's versions of the Hiberno - English, with the exception of the Ulster Scots back. Great regional differences, however, the later influence of other British dialects. Especially in the Northeast were by the settlement of northern English and Scottish families the northern English and Scottish dialects of great influence. Therefore, some researchers distinguish - in addition to the Ulster Scots - even two fundamentally separate dialects of Hiberno - English, the southern variant, which was created from the southern English of the 16th century, and the northern variant, which arose from the Northern English of the 17th century. The actual development may lie in the middle, that is, the northern dialects are fed by two sources.
The second major source of influence is the Irish, which is generally regarded as the substrate of Hiberno - English. The precise extent of the influence is disputed, as it is in spite of the relatively good source material is often difficult to determine for the Frühneuenglische whether a particular grammatical construction or phrase comes from the older English or mimics an appropriate education in Irish. Nevertheless, the origin of some features of the syntax, phonetics and vocabulary of the Irish be unequivocally established.
Hiberno -English retains many phonemic differences that have disappeared in other English dialects.
- 'r' is very similar to the pronunciation in American English and is always pronounced, no matter where it occurs in the word, which makes Hiberno -English to a rhotic dialect.
- The 'th' is always voiceless and is often portrayed as an aspirated " t " spoken. The sound of "this thing" about how "dis ting "
- Receive the distinction between w [ w] and wh [ hw ] as wine and whine remains.
- D / t at the end of a syllable is widely replaced by [ ʃ ]: [ iʃ ] for it, [ graʊnʃ ] for ground.
Changed personal pronouns in the nominative and accusative
- Instead of the second person plural " you" ( as subject ) is often used " yi " (also in written language ); So instead of "Are you proud of it? " "Are yis proud of it? ".
- Instead of the second person " you" ( as an object ) is often " ye" (also in the written language ); So instead of " God bless you " "God bless ye".
Also typical of both the spoken and the written language is the double apostrophizing; instead of "I would have done it " hears " I'd've done it ," or rather "I will have done this by tomorrow" " I'll've done this by tomorrow".
Often, the spoken language is a mixture of English with Gaelic expressions in the sentence. " Henno what looking down at the roll -book, writing real slowly. Kevin clicked his fingers. - Sea * Said Henno? . He did not look up Kevin spoke. "
- "Sea " Here for the English " yes". In Irish, there is no word for "yes" ( German ). Instead, they say "it is " (English ) ( "is ea " ( irish ) → " sea" ), etc.
Other phrases and formulations.
- The gerund forms of the verb are often not used. Instead of "I go shopping" it says that is, " I go to the shops". Instead of the sentence "I go swimming" is rather the phrase " I go for a swim " in use.
- Instead of using the negation have not got / hasn 't got the Nicht-haben/Nicht-besitzen is often expressed with the negation of the present simple, so " I do not have a car" instead of " I have not got a car " etc. have not got / hasn 't got- forms are rather uncommon in both the spoken and the written language.
- Instead of the adjective "great" ( in the sense of "wonderful", "great" ), the word "grand " is used almost exclusively. " I'm fine " is in Ireland "I'm grand ".
- Instead of the noun " thing" is available in the Hiberno - English-speaking countries, the word " yoke " in use.