High Speed 1
High Speed One (HS1 ) is a 108 km long high-speed line, with the euro tunnel linking London with the Channel and allows a speed of 300 km / hr. By November 2006, this line was designated as the Channel Tunnel Rail Link (CTRL). The track is the first major railway construction in Great Britain for over a hundred years and replaces the old route through the county of Kent, on the Euro Star high-speed trains with a maximum of 100 mph (160 km / h) were out.
On 28 September 2003 was the first part of the route, from the Euro Tunnel to Fawkham Junction in operation. Thus, the journey time between London and the Channel Tunnel could be reduced initially by 20 minutes.
Section 2 to the St Pancras railway station was opened on 14 November 2007. The travel time on the route London- Paris shortened to 2 hours 15 minutes, while Brussels can be reached in 1 hr 51 minutes. On 4 September 2007, sailed for the first time a Euro Star with passengers the entire route and needed for London St Pancras to Paris Nord 2 hours, 3 minutes and 39 seconds.
The design and conduct
Section 1 of the full height that executed CTRL 74 km long and leads from the portal of the Euro tunnel north of Folkestone to the connection to the network of National Rail with Fawkham Junction in north Kent west of Longfield and Farningham Road east of the station. The Euro Star trains ran until November 13, 2007 at the London suburb of power to the Waterloo International Station. With the commissioning of this first part, the travel times between London and Paris shortened by 21 minutes to two hours and 35 minutes.
The first section includes important structures such as the 1.2 km long viaduct over the River Medway at Rochester and the 3.2 km long tunnel through the hills of the North Downs in Maidstone. The line was bundled with the M2 and M20 motorways. The operating speed is in control mode 300 km / h except on the connector of Southfleet Junction to Fawkham Junction, which is designed for a maximum speed of 165 km / hr.
The Section 2, which was put into operation on 14 November 2007, is 39.4 km long and runs from Southfleet Junction train service to London St Pancras. With the commissioning of this second part, the travel times between London and Paris shortened by a further 20 minutes to 2 hours 15 minutes. A few kilometers north of the branch Southfleet Junction of the new station, Ebbsfleet International, has been built. Just north of this station starts of the 2.5 km-long tunnel under the Thames; north of the river the route to Dagenham runs alongside the railway line London, Tilbury and Southend Railway. On the following line to the edge of the center of London there are two other tunnels of 10 ( London East tunnel ▼ 51.5269166666670.13719444444444 ) and 7.5 km ( London West Tunnel ) in length and the new station Stratford International. One can consider the two tunnel as a single, which is disclosed by the Stratford International station for a kilometers. The London East tunnel solves the Severn Tunnel ( 7.008 km ) as the longest railway tunnel in the UK.
The east side of the station St. Pancras, with the platform edges 5 to 13, has been adapted for the new lines operation. Here are six tracks the international Euro - Star traffic and three other local train service available.
Since the opening of the Euro tunnel existed in the French section of the Euro Star connection is a high-speed line, LGV Nord, can be driven at 300 km / hr. In 1997, the HSL 1 followed by the Belgian-French border to almost Brussels. In Britain, however, was no track of this kind available and the cross-border trains had run on the existing old network, with correspondingly reduced speed. The poor state of the UK rail infrastructure in general caused beyond regular and unpredictable delays, with a negative impact on the popularity of the Euro - Star bid.
Already in July 1988 British Rail had submitted a report on possible routes of trains between the Channel Tunnel and London. It went on to study for a corresponding high-speed line from London through Kent to the Channel Tunnel, which were not retained for reasons of cost. In the spring of 1991, a modified version was submitted that followed the stock route through the North Downs and four variants for inclusion in the London node contained. In October 1991 the British government endorsed this plan, however, rejected the introduction on the south-east London and suggested a more easterly route guidance via Ebbsfleet to St Pancras.
As of 1992, the business unit " Union Railways " worked on the project. On political request, the new line was designed for freight transport. In March 1994, the government announced a contest to find a private partner for the realization of the CTRL project. In March 1996, London and Continental Railways (LCR ) was the winner of this competition.
LCR also took over the shares of Euro Star (UK). The original members of the LCR consortium were National Express Group, Virgin Group, SBC Warburg, Bechtel and London Electric. When the now dismantled State Railways British Rail still existed, the project was lead by Union Railways, which then was a subsidiary of LCR.
Originally, the entire route should be built under a single project. Significant financial problems forced in 1998 those responsible to split the project into two sections. As part of a refurbishment program LCR issued interest-bearing securities with a value of £ 1.6 billion to fund Section 1; Section 2 was seriously at this point in question. Actually had planned to transfer the operation of the line after the completion of Union Railways. The parties agreed to the completed section 1 for sale to the railway infrastructure company Railtrack, which also got the option to purchase Section 2. Railtrack, however, undertook to operate both around the track as well as the St Pancras railway station (the latter had been transferred in contrast to all other UK stations 1996 LCR).
With the award of the first two works contracts ( worth around £ 250 million ) began in January 2001, the second phase of the route; the start of construction was going planned for July 2001. The second and final round of funding for the section ( about 600 million pounds ) was planned for the end of February 2001.
2001 gave Railtrack announced that it was unable, due to its own financial problems, to acquire Section 2 after completion. This announcement triggered a second restructuring. An agreed in 2002 plan provided that section 1 is owned by Railtrack, LCR section 2 but not sold ( however, the Administration should both sections are at Railtrack ). The ever increasing financial problems forced Railtrack to sell back his share of the CTRL to LCR. LCR in turn sold the operating rights of the entire route to Network Rail, the successor of ultimately bankrupt Railtrack. This LCR was again in possession of both sections, as already in 1996.
As a result of the restructuring of the project is the LCR consortium since 2006 from the construction companies Arup, Bechtel, Halcrow and Systra, the transport company National Express Group and SNCF, the energy company Electricite de France and UBS Investment Bank. Once completed, the entire route to the new long-term owners London & Continental Stations and Property is transferred, while Network Rail will be responsible for management, operation and maintenance.
In November 2006, named L & CR the railway line from the Channel Tunnel Rail Link in High Speed One ( HS1 short ) around. This should also be expressed, that it is no longer just about getting London to bind to the channel tunnel, but to lay the foundation for a series of high-speed lines in the UK.
In a test run on 30 July 2003 a new British speed record was set on rails with 334.7 km / h. The Euro Star - unit 3313/3314 surpassed 's record of 259.5 km / h, the 1979 had reached a tilting body.
In a test run on March 6, 2007 no longer to be propelled by the opening of Section 2 Station Waterloo International was achieved for the first time on this route.
After the commissioning of the second portion of the new revenues of Euro Star rose within six weeks to 20 percent. The train reached a market share of around 70 percent.
Mid-2009, the UK government has control of the operating company London & Continental Railways Ltd. accepted for 5.16 billion pounds. This was a further step towards a sale of the operating license for the HS1. With the proceeds, the construction costs will be partially in play again. At the same track prices for the route are to be reduced by the discharge of the operating company and a long-term stable financial base. It is expected that the government sells a concession to operate the route over a period of about 40 years. The route is intended to do without public subsidies. In November 2010, a Canadian consortium decided the bidding war for itself. The purchase price amounts to 2.1 billion pounds and includes an operating license for 30 years.
On 29 June 2009 the forward mode was included in regional traffic with 29 trainsets of class 395, six months before the planned start of the contract in traffic. Since December 2009, even within the English high-speed traffic is handled via the CTRL. At this point, the moves of the Class 395 have commenced full operation between London and South East England.
DB Schenker Rail (UK ) announced in 2009, to run from 2010 freight trains on the HS1. To be drawn, these trains of modified locomotives of the series 92 On 27 May 2011, a first test run took place.
With route pricing of around 40 euros per train-km for passenger high speed rail route is according to information of the Deutsche Bahn, the most expensive in the use of high -speed rail in Europe (as of 2010).
The power supply of the CTRL is the same as in the Euro Tunnel on AC overhead lines with 25 kV 50 Hz instead of the usual in southern England busbars with 750 V DC.
As command TVM 430 and KVB are installed.
The structure gauge corresponds to the mainland Europe spread UIC GC gauge. The station belongs to Ashford International, the Network Rail and not the owner of High Speed 1, applies to the tracks 3 and 4, where some Euro Star trains stop, the GB . There, the upper line depends 4.68 m high, while it is hanging high on the HS1 about 5 m. The link from Southfleet Junction on the HS1 to Fawkham Junction with the Chatham Main Line (towards Waterloo ) has only a British loading gauge W6/W6A.
The construction costs amounted to 5.7 billion British pounds.
The cost for the first phase were estimated at 1.9 billion British pounds in 2003. The estimated cost for the entire project, amounted to 5.2 billion pounds.
The variable costs are given with 42 Euro per train-km.