Hjalmar Johansen

Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen ( born May 15, 1867 in Skien, † January 4, 1913 in Christiania (Oslo ) ) was a Norwegian polar explorer.

Life as a polar explorer

Johansen is one of the best gymnasts and skiers of his time. From 1893 to 1896 he was a member of the Fram expedition, Fridtjof Nansen. The attempt during this expedition to reach together with Nansen on skis to the North Pole, failed. After canceling the thrust both men went back on a grueling and privation trip to Franz Josef Land. There they met Frederick George Jackson, who allowed them to return to Norway. In recognition of his services Johansen was promoted at the behest of King Haakon VII of captain. In 1907 he took part in a polar expedition financed by the Monegasque Prince Albert I to Svalbard. In the winter of 1907 to 1908, he wintered with Theodor Lerner on Spitsbergen.

Through the mediation Nansen took him with Roald Amundsen on the Fram Expedition 1910-1913, which pursued the goal to reach the South Pole for the first time. In competition with the British polar explorer Robert Falcon Scott Amundsen's group broke with the first approach to the pole in September 1911 for the season early on and had to prematurely turn back to base camp due to a storm and freezing temperatures. It claimed Amundsen the best sled dog team for himself and took on the way back no consideration for the advancement of the rest of the group. So Johansen and his sleigh mate Kristian Prestrud were temporarily forced to make do without a tent and stove in partially -50 ° C and reached the camp Framheim only with very good luck. As a result, there was a dispute between Johansen and Amundsen front of the other expedition members. Amundsen saw this as undermining his authority as leader of the expedition, made ​​all expedition members to secrecy about the operation and closed Johansen from the pole group from. Instead Amundsen him Prestrud and Jørgen Stubberud ordered on a reconnaissance march to the Edward VII Peninsula. Further, Amundsen certain that not Johansen, but the far less experienced Prestrud should lead this group. With the triumphant return of the expedition Johansen was not allowed to go together with the other participants in Norway by board also. In his expedition report The Conquest of the South Pole Amundsen Johansens concealed contributions to the success of the expedition. Through these humiliations Johansen fell into a deep depression and eventually took in 1913 in a park in the Norwegian capital Christiania by a headshot life.

The services Hjalmar Johansens in polar research were ignored after his death for a long time. The key to increase his notoriety was the book published in 1997 the tredje man ( German Title: In the Shadow of History of Hjalmar Johansen. ) Of the Norwegian author Ragnar Kvam (* 1942) at. Today Johansen applies in addition to Amundsen and Nansen as one of the greatest polar explorer of Norway.

Private life

From 1898 closed with Hilda Øvrum ( 1868-1956 ) married the daughter Margit ( 1900-1980 ) and the sons Tryggve ( 1899-1970 ), Hjalmar originate (1901 -? ) And Per ( 1903-1970 ).