The teeth ( Burmese, rarely hnae ) is a woodwind instrument with a double reed which is played in Myanmar. She is a leading melodic instrument in the great classical hsaing - waing ensembles.
The teeth is one of the Asian conical oboe, which arose in the Persian world. This type of instrument surnais the spread of Islam with its shape and the name east to Malaysia and Sumatra, where the serune or srunai occurs in the ensemble of some ethnic groups. The name is of Persian sarne or sarna, which contains the syllable nai ( " pipe " ), is derived. Until the 19th century the Burmese oboe was thane called the Thai counterpart is the pi chanai. In the language of her name is khane Mon. The latest in the Mughal Come in military bands and accompanied by drums to India says there wind instrument shehnai, in its northern neighbor China came probably to the 14th century, the suona. In both countries, it has previously been oboes other simple types. With the wages are comparable to the role played in the northern Indian state of Meghalaya tangmuri that gyaling used in the Tibetan Buddhist music and the Nepalese mvali.
The earliest mention of a Burmese wind instrument can be found in an inscription from Bagan. In a poem from the late 15th century for the first time appeared on an oboe. Characteristic of the Surnais in all countries is the original outdoor use in processions, funerals and weddings.
The most common form of Hne consists of three parts. There is a conical wooden pipe with seven finger holes at the same distance on the top, the byi pok ( " consonants handle holes" ) are called because they carry the melody is produced. At the bottom, compared to the first two holes melody is another hole for the thumb, sa ra pok ( " vowel handle hole " ), which provides for the timbre. Four finger holes are left, three are operated by the right hand. The fan-shaped tube sheet is formed of six to eight blades of the leaves of Palmyra palm, sugar palm leaves are also used. These are watered and later smoked for months. When playing the reed is enclosed by mouth. The tongues are very sensitive and need to be changed if used frequently every two to three months. To obtain a continuous tone circular breathing is practiced, as with other reed instruments. In a striking oblique position is at the end of the pipe a thick bell metal (usually brass). He is postponed and only loosely attached to a colorful drawstring, which is why he shows the game down and can easily commute.
Another form of Burmese oboe consists only of a straight wooden melody pipe without bell and thus corresponds to the slightly bulbous in the middle of Cambodian sralai. These two oboes do not have much to do with the type of Surnais.
After the size of the following oboes are distinguished: The large teeth or teeth kris ci is 40 to 45 inches long. Your lower tone is C. It is considered dignified and was used until the early 20th century at a slow pace for funeral music and royal ceremonies. A fifth higher tuned (lower tone G ) is the small teeth or teeth kales kalei whose length is 26 to 30 centimeters. It is the most played oboe for fast pieces of folk music and festivities. Both instruments have a range of two octaves.
No longer played the oboe middle hne lat that a fourth was voted higher than the great oboe and an oversized, one octave against the teeth kalei deeper instrument. The portrayal of Curt Sachs in 1915, the wages should have been blown so strong that behind every player is a supportive helper in his exhaustion was standing, either poetry or makes his disappearance understandable.
For classical courtly chamber music in an enclosed space the teeth is unsuitable because of their thin or sharp, in any case, penetrating sound. In the quiet, a female voice accompanying ensembles of the harp saung gauk, the crocodile zither mí - Gyaung saung and the fiddle tayaw is therefore the teeth replaced palwei by the flute. Their finger holes are tuned to the same scale.
By contrast, the teeth in the big, noisy hsaing - waing or pat waing mentioned orchestras that are played outdoors, say among the percussion instruments as a contrasting voice. From the importance of the 21 delivered thought -piece drum circle hsaing is waing the first melody instrument. It is played by the orchestra conductor and supported by kyi waing, a circle of 21 humpback gongs and a further Gong game. In fact, lead in this orchestra one or two teeth, the main melodic line, which is enriched by the beaten melody instruments, with variations, duplication and syncope. The wages here comes the same task as the sralai in the Cambodian orchestra in relation to local first xylophone Roneat ek. Hsaing waing and wages often leads a musical competition, when the drum circle pretending an improvised phrase that should be imitated by the oboe.
The great Oboe teeth ci were intended for ritual duties at the royal court. She played in instrumental pieces as Yegin passes along below the palace guard to the out of moat and walls in the compositions neyi which rang every morning in the royal palace.
For folk drum dance in joyous occasions ozi enters a music group on a hne, the ozi said drum, a wooden rattle wa and a Handzimbel si. The dancer also plays the drum; once it is exhausted, his part is taken from the wa - player. Solo and choral singing alternately follow.
Among the most famous players include Hne Phone U and U Mya Ngwe (* 1940).