Consubstantiality ( homoousios, from Ancient Greek ὁμοούσιος ( homoousios ), consubstantial ) is a term of Christian theology, the relationship of God the Father, and of Christ, the logos, describes. It is the central message of the confession of Nicaea ( Nicene Creed ) from the year 325 The question of the nature of equality belongs to the core issue of Christology.
325 Emperor Constantine the Great convened the First Council of Nicaea one. The council was the Arian controversy ahead: the Alexandrian presbyter Arius said that God the Father and God the Son (Jesus) were not of the same substance, but essentially similar ( Homoiusie, Homöusie - trailer is called Homousianer or Homoiousians. ). In Greek, the two expressions differed only by one iota: homoousios ( consubstantial ) and homoiousios ( essentially similar). Arius ' teaching was not recognized and condemned by the majority of bishops ( " anathematiziert "). Arius himself was excommunicated. This was the subordinationism ( notion that the Son is subordinate to the Father ) of Origen and Arius rejected; Furthermore, it was the pre-existence of Christ ( ie, Christ have always existed and not until some time ) that Arius also refused binding.
Christ is as defined by the Nicene Creed consubstantial with the Father:
- He is - as the word of God - of the same substance as God the Father ( that is, it charges the same attributes that only God send [eg the Kyrios title, eternal, immortal ]. )
- He is the son of God, begotten of the Father, not made ( "First birth of the Son ", which precedes His incarnation ).
The Trinity thus describes Jesus ( God the Son ) to be equal to God the Father and the Holy Spirit, and not as " graded " as the subordinationism accepts this.
However, the decision of the council led to no agreement is reached within the slowly transforming Reich Church. On the contrary: Although the so-called " Arianism " (a term actually very blurred ) was partially strictly followed, it years later, conflicts arose between the Arians and the followers of Nicaenums. Even some emperors were Arians, such as Constantius II, who was very active in the religious policy. Finally sat down in the kingdom, however, the Nicene Creed by, though Arianism was promoted in most Germanic kingdoms that arose in the course of the migration of peoples, some centuries longer.
Are present in the early Christian opponents of the essential equality could not survive the persecution. During the Reformation arose again antrinitarische groups that contradicted this dogma. From the radical Reformation Antitrinitariern the Unitarians emerged. Later, other anti-Trinitarian groups such as the Christadelphians, the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Mormons came.