Horn of Africa
As the Horn of Africa, the easternmost wedge-shaped part of East Africa is called.
This " horn " represents the face of the continent is located between the Gulf of Aden and the actual Indian Ocean on the Somali peninsula, whose territory covers not quite with the area of the Horn of Africa: The " Horn " covers not only the state of Somalia and the eastern part of Ethiopia ( Ogaden ) and depending on the demarcation occasionally throughout Ethiopia and Djibouti and Eritrea added. Directly at the very tip of the horn is now the breakaway Somali region of Puntland.
The term Horn of Africa 1977/78 used in the media, especially since the Ogadenkrieg between Somalia and Ethiopia. In 2011, due to drought caused a severe food crisis in the Horn of Africa, according to reports from the international organizations are currently 11.5 million people are affected (as of August 2011).
The Horn of Africa is one of only two biodiversity hotspots in the arid region of the earth. The region suffers mainly from very high grazing pressure ( " overgrazing " ), which led to a large habitat loss. Only five percent have been preserved from the original ecosystem. In Socotra Archipelago fisheries and the increasing sealing of the landscape are a big problem.
Regional security aspects
In order to stabilize the region, the multinational operation Atalanta, the EU to protect humanitarian aid deliveries to Somalia, free shipping and to combat piracy off the Somali coast has been launched.
" The year 2011 will be essentially determined by two factors in the Horn of Africa: from the developments in Sudan after the referendum and of the direction decision in Somalia - two independent systems conflict with a significant impact on the region and beyond. Thus, the two countries falls the role of switchman in the Horn of Africa. [ ... ] In the Horn of Africa, the international community is facing enormous challenges. A further destabilization of the region, a chain of weak states, migration flows produce and would attract actors of violence is contrary to Europe's interest in a stable neighboring continent. "