Human Development Index
- 0.900 and more
- 0.349 and less
- No data
The HDI was essentially developed by the Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, who worked closely with the Indian economist Amartya Sen and the British economist and politician Meghnad Desai.
New calculation method from Report 2010
From the Report on Human Development 2010, the three dimensions are calculated as follows:
- Life expectancy index: Life expectancy at birth (LE )
- Education Index: Average schooling duration (DSD ) and expected duration of schooling (VSD ) in years.
- Standard of living: Gross National Income ( GNI) per capita (PPP U.S. $ )
1 Life expectancy index ( LEI)
2 Education Index ( BI)
3 Income Index ( EI)
Finally, the HDI is calculated as the geometric mean of the three dimensions:
LE: Life expectancy at birth DSD: Average schooling duration (number of years, has visited a 25 -year-old person or older school ) EYS: Expected schooling duration (number of years, which is a 5 - year-old child expected to go to school ) BNEpk: Gross national product per capita adjusted for purchasing power in U.S. Dollars
The minimum and maximum values ( target values ) are used to normalize the sub-indices in the range [ 0 to 1 ]. These minimum values were defined and used the observed maximum values during the reporting year. For the Report in 2013 are:
Calculation method to 2009
- Arab States
- Europe and Central Asia
- Latin America and Caribbean
- East Asia and Pacific
- South Asia
- Sub-Saharan Africa
There are three main indices, the formation is split into three sub-indices:
The limits are the minima / maxima that have ever reached by a country.
The indices I for A, B1 and B2 are calculated now
The education index B is calculated as
The income index Z is calculated as
It follows that the HDI values between zero and one assumes. The UNDP classifies countries according to the HDI since 2009 in four development categories:
- Countries with high human development
- Countries with medium human development
- Countries with low human development
The idea behind the index and problems
The basic motivation behind the development of the Human Development Index 1990, according to Amartya Sen, the lack of validity of previous measuring instruments (eg assess the evolution of the gross domestic product ). The HDI should permit the measurement of the level of development that is more representative of the needs of people and many aspects of development into account, as it is a relatively simple index possible. HDI - founder Mahbub ul Haq stated in this connection that development should increase the opportunities for the people. To the development objectives therefore include, for example, values such as better nutrition, health, education, leisure and opportunities of participation of the people.
The HDI, and its significance is discussed controversially. Point of contention is about the weighting of aspects of human development, with different judgments prevail about what aspects and how high they should be judged. Welthungerhilfe example looks for the evaluation of already well developed countries the HDI as less suitable, since its assessment criteria relate as literacy and life expectancy mainly underdeveloped countries.
The HDI uses average values for the country and therefore can not be represented directly inequalities within the country. The construction of the HDI has been changed several times in recent years (eg in the treatment of income or the modification of the upper and lower limits). This also results in a limited comparability of data over the years.
In the introduction of the first Human Development Report of 1990, it was in accordance with its target:
" People are the real wealth of a country. The basic objective of development is to create an environment where you can enjoy a long, healthy and creative lives in the people. This may seem like a simple truth, but often gets forgotten behind the concerns of the accumulation of material goods and financial wealth. "
The specified lower limit of 20 years in life expectancy does not consider the infant mortality rate and the proportion of children who do not reach adulthood.
As more and more often reaching back data were used for the report, there were some major rank changes in some developed countries.
Medium human development
Low human development
In the HDI does not take account of national
- Kosovo ( not a member of the UN)
- Republic of China ( the country was until 1971 representative for the whole of China in the United Nations, was from then replaced by the People's Republic of China and left the UN., It is counted in the report to the People's Republic of China and calculates its own HDI no. )
- Somalia ( The country is characterized by persistent civil war, therefore almost no statistical data are collected. )
- Vatican City ( The Vatican is not a member of the UN and does not own educational system. )
The following countries were in previous years No. 1 on the HDI list:
The HDI is criticized on the grounds of redundancy, since the trapped in the HDI indicators strongly correlated with GNI per capita and can thus be frozen by this.
The HDI is also accused of not take into account environmental factors.