Ice Cruise of the Baltic Fleet
The Eismarsch the Baltic Fleet (Russian Ледовый поход Балтийского флота ) was an operation of the Baltic Fleet in the spring of 1918, in the face of advancing German troops on the Eastern Front since the beginning of 1918 and the Finland - intervention, their ships from the advanced bases in Reval (Tallinn ) withdraw and Helsingfors ( Helsinki) to Kronstadt.
On February 25, 1918 German troops made their advance through the Baltic Reval. The ships of the Baltic fleet stationed there were - with the exception of a submarine - leave the port and reached through the tireless efforts of icebreakers on March 5, Helsingfors. Even as are in the shipyards of Long & Böcker and the Russian Baltic plants under construction or equipment were transferred to new buildings.
The two icebreaker Ermak and Wolhynez managed the 330 km to Kronstadt in five days. The following major units were among the companies:
- Four battleships: Gangut, Petropawlovsk, Poltava, Sevastopol
- Three older battleships Andrei Perwoswanny, Respublika (formerly Emperor Paul I ), Graschdanin ( ex. Zessarewitsch )
- Five armored cruiser Rurik, Admiral Makarov, Bajan, Gromoboi, Rossiya
- Four cruisers: Bogatyr, Oleg, Aurora, Diana
- 57 destroyers ( including 16 large modern destroyer of Nowik type)
- Three gunboats: Grosjaschtschi, Chrabry, Chiwinez
- 12 U- boats
- Three minelayer
Shortly before landing German troops sank in the port of Hanko Russian submarines AG 11, AG 12, AG 15 and AG 16 They themselves were later lifted and placed by the Finnish Navy in service. On the following days the British submarines HMS C26 HMS C27 HMS C35, HMS E1, HMS E8, E9, HMS and HMS E19 by their crews in Helsingfors were scuttled.