The Ice Saints, also called stern gentlemen, include several ( three, regional differences also four or five) days of remembrance of saints in May. Because of the shift by the Gregorian calendar reform, the same old farmer rule is now, however, only each more than a week later adopted as the Day of Remembrance of the respective Holy is.
The commemoration day
The observances are on:
In the aforementioned weather saints are bishops and martyrs of the 4th and 5th centuries.
Climatological basics of country lore
The Ice Saints are in Central Europe singularities meteorological (weather control cases). According to the tradition the mild spring weather is stable until the expiry of the "cold Sophie ". In Northern Germany Mamertus is considered the first Eisheiliger, southern Germany, however Pancras, which can be explained by the gradual advance of the cold air from the north.
The farmer usually has historically placed about two to three centuries before the Gregorian calendar reform. Since the Ice Saints, like all the other saints, are stopped unchanged in the calendar, you can find according to the new calendar so really only eleven to twelve days later, ie from May 23 to May 27 In fact, statistically the weather days with frequent N / NO - weather, the cold air brings, from May 21 to May 23 so nine days later.
The dates must be remembered that Pope Gregory XIII. the Gregorian calendar, although already introduced in 1582, but was first converted into the non-Catholic areas of Northern and Central Europe, 1700-1752 coverage to the new era. With this change, such as the September was in England in 1752 shortened by eleven days ( on September 2 was immediately followed by the 14th).
The assumption is based on centuries-old experience and observations of farmers that were made before the weather records, but no longer can today confirm meteorologically. For example, an average of 0.4 days with frost were in Trier in the period 1951-1961 measured in May ( that's four days within ten years ) from 1991 to 2006, however, no. The climate in Germany is regionally very different; therefore are rules that should apply, for example, North Sea coast, the Alps and wine regions alike, hardly possible.
Another cold snap in June is known as the Schafskälte.
Folklore and Proverbs
Over time, various proverbs and sayings have developed, which refer to the Eisheiligen reference:
- Pancrazio, Servaz, Boniface make only the summer course.
- Before Boniface is not summer, after Sophie no frost.
- Never safe from frost you are, is to Sophie over.
- Servaz must be over, you want to be safe from frost.
- Pankrazi, Servazi and Bonifazi are three frosty Bazi. And finally, never missing the Cold Sophie.
- Pancrazio and Servaz are two evil brothers, what brought the spring, they destroy them again.
- Plant never before Cold Sophie.
- Mamerz has a cold heart.
- The cold makes everything Sophie here. ( bavarian: hie = out broken)
- Mamertius, Pancras, Servatius often bring cold and annoyance.