As Ice (also ice skate, double godmother, Eng. Skate) is called on the feet attached devices with runners for sliding on ice or synthetic ice. The locomotion with skates will also run as an ice-skating, ice- skating or referred. Sports that are performed on different ice shapes are figure skating (including ice dancing ), ice hockey and speed skating or even Xtreme Ice Skating. The movement takes place mainly using the ice step.
Skating Skates have to the calves high-necked lace-up boots with 3-4 mm thick steel runners with hollow ground in the transverse direction and a slight Kurvung longitudinally. There are jagged edges for jumping off of jumps, pirouettes without turning the edge to edge, and perform some steps at the front tip. The prongs are required to toe loop, flip, Lutz or tip jumps jump.
Have ice hockey skates up over the ankle -reaching supply processed ankle boot from mostly quite high quality plastic materials ( Kevlar, carbon fiber soles, specialty plastics ) with additional heel or Achilles tendon protection and about 5 mm thick steel runners with hollow ground in the transverse direction and a slight Kurvung longitudinally.
Speed skating skates have to just below the ankle reaching Lace made of goatskin. The long steel runners, also called " bread knife " are about 38 to 45 centimeters long and have a thickness of about 1.3 to 1.5 millimeters. The tread has a flanged with a weak Kurvung in the longitudinal direction, which is to prevent " digging in" of the blade into the ice. The tip is rounded, the rear end of the top is angled backwards.
In contrast to the rear push off when skating, the hockey players and speed skaters encounters in a straight line with your legs diagonally to the rear, where the blade remains in contact with the whole length of the ice surface. Although the long runners to stabilize the straight, just so that the forced rejection technique leads to a much more pronounced zigzag course. However, to provide the greatest speed is attained on the ice.
The last level of development here is the hinged skate where the blade while lifting the heel with stretched shock absorber rear folds down and is withdrawn again until the final lift-off. Lace - athletes on skates reach several kilometers or number of minutes a sustained speed of 45 km / h sprint in briefly to about 60 km / h
Between the skate blades and the ice is a thin layer of liquid water forms. Due to this water layer, the sliding friction is very low in the direction of the skid. Ice at 0 ° C has a few nm-thick layer of liquid on the surface, the back becomes thinner to lower temperatures. This layer, however, is far too thin to explain the low friction. By friction during movement but creates enough heat that locally melts the ice and a sufficiently thick layer of liquid forms .. This process regulates itself as soon as a sufficiently thick layer of liquid is present, the friction decreases with the creation of additional heat. Consistent with this explanation is that a dormant skate blade shows a clearly noticeable friction against the ice.
Since the weight of the rotor is concentrated on a small area produces a high pressure on the runners. This pressure is sufficient to flex the edges of the blades into the surface of the ice a little. The resulting ice in the trench prevents the blade from sliding perpendicular to the edge. Against this resistance, the leg support themselves and take advantage of this power to the drive. The constant movement is achieved by alternately pushing with the ice on one leg and sliding on each other's feet. Since the frictional resistance on the liquid layer is very much lower than in a solid, dry material, while a high speed is achieved with relatively low power use.
Load bearing capacity of ice sheets on water see: the sustainability of the ice
About 800 years ago glided in the Netherlands messenger with iron runners on wooden shoes on the frozen canals and brought about in this way urgent messages to noble receiver. In the following centuries, the ice skating developed initially for pleasure of the nobility and later also a popular sport. Middle of the 18th century were founded in the UK, the first skate clubs.
While the Norse peoples as well as the Frisians and Dutch always remained good skater, this art was in Germany longer limited to the youth, to Klopstock by enthusiastic descriptions (eg, in his odes: " Skating ", " Braga ", " The Art Thialfs ") was skating more popular and the preferred winter pleasure.
In the Netherlands, Friesland, Scandinavia, Switzerland, in northern Germany and Canada, the wide and fast running was very well maintained. The most striking example is the Dutch traditional elfstedentocht, at the drive through in a day eleven Frisian cities and about 200 kilometers are covered. More skating marathons are the " Vikingarännet " (about 80 km), from Uppsala to Stockholm and the Weissensee - skating marathon.
In Canada and on the Danish islands skating was accelerated by a fortified on the back sail, a frieze was able to cover a distance of 160 Dutch Ellen cover ( about 100 meters) in 14 seconds. In large cities with small Eisplätzen, however, the artistic cycling was more pronounced. The first took place here New York City, and from there coming masters such as Haynes in the European capitals school made .
Between 1840 and 1875 the system operated on skates ice hockey was developed in Canada from various team sports. The British stationed troops played an important role in the 1840 Shinney played the Scottish game shinty on snow or ice.
Currently, the natural water bodies such as lakes, rivers and canals freeze in Central Europe rarely so strong that regular ice skating is possible. If it does happen, but which is gladly used on lakes such as the Alster in Hamburg. The Biological Protective Association Hunte Weser -Ems asks skating refrain on smaller frozen waters: Almost all fish and aquatic amphibians respond due to special senses, the so-called lateral line organs, are very sensitive to external stimuli, water currents and pressure fluctuations. Above all, the vibrations and sound waves, which are caused by jumping and falling of ice skaters and the crunch of ice skate blades that can be sensitive animals startled out of their winter dormancy. Your metabolism is stimulated, intensified heartbeat and breathing. Thus, the oxygen consumption increased significantly. Due to the frozen water surface, however, the oxygen is quickly running out. In addition, more harmful swamp gases are churned out of the mud by the sudden activity of the fish. However, since they can not escape through the ice, they provide for the critters under water a mortal danger dar. Instead, should deeper for skating, larger lakes, flooded meadows and ice rinks are used.
In large cities there are special ice rinks outdoors or in halls. The short-track high-speed competitions developed on 111 -meter round courses on these mostly rather small ice. These halls are now partly operated throughout the year and in addition to training facilities for figure skaters and hockey clubs and a wide range of public courses. A special offer, which again is the desire to wake on Ice skating at the young people, the ice disco. Thus, the ice rink is also a meeting place for young people of all ages. With the invention of synthetic ice, there is also an alternative to the infrastructure-intensive artificial ice rink, the ice sport gives the potential to become a mass sport.
History of the skate
When and how it has occurred to the people who take advantage of a quick and easy movement on the frozen ice surface is not known. Mentions it does not exist. Maybe it was in the hunt. Hunting was not only fur and meat, but also bones, which are then used for making various instruments. They were probably also the first sliding test at hand.
Ice skates made of animal bones were found in Russia, Scandinavia, Great Britain, Germany, Switzerland and elsewhere. Native of Siberia ran on walrus tusks, in China used to bamboo rods.
Scandinavian sagas such as the Edda tell Eisspielen from the time of the Norwegian king Sigurd Jorsalfari. The Aesir of Norse mythology dominated the art ice skating, and even the inclusion of Christianity forced descendants of the brave men not to stop with the " divine " movement.
Beginning of the 20th century were dug out in France about 60 cm long metacarpal bones of cattle. Lateral parts of these bones were ground off, so we suspected that they were used as skates. Their age was estimated at about 20,000 years.
Oldest findings that can be identified with greater certainty than skates, dating approximately from the time of 3000 BC They were made from leg bones of various animals. Horses, cattle and reindeer bones were split, ground flat, pierced and attached to the sandals. With a spear or two pointed sticks you put her into ice and so achieved remarkable speeds. Such " skates " were found in maritime works rediscovered in Switzerland, however, used almost in all European regions.
One of the oldest ice skates in the world is probably a bone skate from Veseli u Trnavy (Slovakia). The British archaeologist VG Childe estimated his age at 5,000 years. More unique skates that are about 4000 years old, were found in the vicinity of ancient Rome. Similar uniques were also found in the Scandinavian countries and Switzerland. In Central Europe, initially served mainly Schweinefußknochen that were fastened with leather straps on the feet, as slip aids on the ice. The bones of the pig were used for this purpose thereof, the term " knuckle ".
In the 18th century still fastened with straps bone skates were used in London, and in Norway and Iceland they were in use until the 19th century. Those bone skates, which were as large as those little bones slide, were called Old Norse Skidi or Öndrun.
Wooden skates with iron runners
On a larger scale began in the 14th century in northern Europe, especially in the Netherlands to use wooden skates. The pedestal in the shape of the foot, was made of wood and an iron fitting first lying flat, edged later in upright position. With the shoe you combined them with leather straps. To move ( to start) they used sticks.
Steel runners strap-on
Oldest steel skates, whose age is estimated at 2000 years, were found in a Erzgießereiwerkstatt a Celtic master and are located in the Museum in Budapest. Around the year 1500 began to use between the Dutch runners with two edges and a groove. The skater could now move without poles. Middle of the 19th century, the ice was attached by a screw in the heel. It also proved their worth fixing by screws to the side of the sole and heel of A. Stotz in Stuttgart and the " Halifaxsche improvement," which used a clamping lever. These skates held as firmly as the sole itself without pressing the foot. These runners were used until the 1950s.
Fixed to the shoe connected metal runners
Middle of the 19th century were used in Scandinavia steel runners, in which the sole was embedded in wood. They were fastened with a cross strap or lace-up. 1865 created the American figure skater Jackson Haines, all-metal skates that were directly connected to the shoe sole. This can be considered the greatest measure of innovation are considered. Later, the Swedish figure skater and 10 - time world champion Ulrich Salchow started using skates with teeth strong goal kicks allowed for running and jumping. In 1907, the Russian figure skater Panin with a new ice model, which was in contrast to Salchows lower; the teeth were placed underneath something. In addition, this model was lighter than the previous one.
Ice hockey skates
Hardshell skates ( for public running)
The patron saint of skaters
The skaters have their own patron saint, the Holy Lidwina of Schiedam. The traditional 15th-century story reported that the then 15 - year-old named Lidwina in 1395 so violently collided while skating with another runner that she was seriously injured. After recovering, she went into a convent and devoted himself until her death in 1443 the religious life. Because of the ice - accident, she became the patron saint of ice skaters.
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