Ijma ʿ, Ijma إجماع, DMG iǧmā ʿ consensus ', the consensus of the scholars of Islamic law, is the third source of Fiqh, the Islamic jurisprudence, in addition to the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions ( sahaba ).
There are three types of consensus: the consensus by an express statement by the proven practice and the tacit approval of an act or statement.
Unrestricted consensus إجماع مطلق, DMG iǧmā ʿ Mutlaq prevails among scholars on fundamental questions of the ritual ( ' Ibadat ), as the duty of prayer, fasting and the like. However, that the idea of consensus not mean that you have achieved in all areas of Islamic law compliance. Rather, we speak of consensus in Medina, or Mecca, the consensus of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, the consensus of the " two cities ", ie Kufa and Basra, and the consensus within a school of law ( madhhab ).
For all the differences in the area of consensus is the legitimacy of the same back to the basic idea that the consensus of the scholars could be contrary to the Qur'an and Sunna in any way.
Arab counter- terms to ijma ʿ are Ichtilāf and Chilāf. They refer to the disagreement between and within the schools of law, which is also the subject of the training of lawyers.