Ilanz ( Romansch Glion [ ʎɔn ]? / I ) until December 31, 2013, municipality in the district Surselva the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland and their character, the first town on the Rhine. The small town, capital of the homonymous district, is located on the Rhine front amidst the wide opening Gruob, at the entrance of the valley Damphreux, a few kilometers above the Rhine gorge Ruinaulta. On 1 January 2014, merged with the former municipalities Ilanz Castrisch, Duvin, Ladir, luffing, Pigniu, Pitasch, Riein, Rueun, Ruschein, Schnaus, Sevgein, Siat the new community Ilanz / Glion.
As a regional administrative center, seat of the regional hospital, market and school location Ilanz forms the center of the lower Surselva. Compared to the earlier prevailing sursilvanischen idiom of Romansh to German has established itself as slang majority. Nevertheless, gave occasion to the last census, a slight majority of the population to speak regularly Romanesque, and the planned introduction of bilingual primary school should strengthen the traditional language in the years to something. Since 1978, the previously independent community Strada belongs to Ilanz. The municipality advertises with the slogan " The first city on the Rhine ."
The 765 in the will of Bishop Tello mentioned in documents in 1289 as a settlement called city under the name Illiande. The interpretation of the name with " granary " is questionable. At the beginning of the Middle Ages there were three population centers: top Ilanz at the Church of St. Martin, Under - Ilanz in today Städtli and Saint Nicholas on the left bank of the Rhine front. Center of the town was initially probably top Ilanz, where the rural village community had its headquarters. Here resided the Minister of the Frankish King for the County Tuverasga which included the whole Gruob. In sub - Ilanz, in the field of St.Margarethenkirche and Casa Gronda the episcopal Grosshof, Bishop Tello was had 765 the monastery Disentis bequeathed.
The importance of top - Ilanz was soon replaced by sub - Ilanz. With the disintegration of the Frankish dominion upper Ilanz had lost its position as seat of the minister. Moreover, the importance of Grosshofs of the Disentis Monastery was grown in sub - Ilanz, as the abbey gained political and economic importance from the 10th century. Also, increased traffic over the Lukmanier, so that the location of the sub - route Lukmanier Ilanz gained in importance.
The third core settlement St. Nicholas is likely despite lacking references in documents due to historic settlement considerations as old, if not older than the Städtli- quarters; Archaeological finds prove that the Lukmanierweg must have passed already in prehistoric times here. Due to the economic policy preferred position on the Rhine Ilanzer obtained probably in the second half of the 13th century, the city law. The privilege of a city encompassed by medieval legal claim to own market, its own court and on city walls.
While the market law of Ilanzer remained uncontested, they were unable to free themselves in legal matters of the Gruob. After all, the city received a so-called city or civil court, which was able to settle minor disputes and was responsible for foreign market people who stayed within the walls. The right to walls took advantage of the Ilanzer. 1390 possessed the town walls and gates, for a contract of this year reports that Baron Caspar von Sax St. Stephen Sporer have given to a hereditary ain hoffstat located ze Inlantz in the stat bi the undern tor nüwen on the ring muren under the ärggel ( Erker ) of Ruedis Schnider hus.
The same treaty of 1390 also mentions a stat right and gewonhait ze Inlantz. From its contents became known only closer to 1529 or 1534 more: then sy ( the Ilanzer ) vii order in IRER instead be right with hofstetten, techeren, alleys, ödgesselynen ( small streets ) ... ouch so habent sy a hard to keep bridges and ouch VII other complaints, it sy wuren with or spell holtz ... ouch other ufsatzung of the for due and ouch to ire arrangement of würten ( hosts ) half uszeschenken. Apparently the municipal law contained a kind of building code regulations for Bridge and Wuhren and a fire police and economic order.
However, despite Ilanz city law does not free the city such as the imperial cities of Zurich and Bern, but was owned by a city gentleman who possessed claim to numerous compensation in the form of interest and duty and levied a tax for protection against enemy attacks from the citizens. Masters of the city were the Barons of Belmont, named after their castle Belmont near Fidaz in the late 13th and 14th centuries. The Belmonter, which included almost all the Gruob and the Val Lumnezia had to defend their property in 1352 against the Lord of becoming mountain Heiligenberg, who scored with his troops in the Gruob and Ilanz sacked. 1483 a fire destroyed the city and the St. Margaret Church. The year 1513 on the ground floor of the Obertors points out that the city was rebuilt relatively soon.
1371 were the Barons of Sax - Misox the city lords of Ilanz; they had assumed his inheritance after the death of the last Belmonters. Among them, began a rapid ascent to gesamtbündnerischer importance for Ilanz. Here closed in 1395 Abbot John of Disentis, a native Ilanzer, Count Albrecht von Sax Misox and Baron Ulrich of the Mighty Rhazuns the country peace treaty Part Sura, which formed the basis of later extended in Truns Grey League. The importance of Ilanz soon enough beyond the actual federal territory, but it was after the unification of the Three Leagues with Chur and Davos in the rotation venue for the general Federal Assembly, the supreme authority of the Grisons Free State.
Ilanz ' central role won in the era of the Reformation even more important. In the St. Margaret Church decisive for the Reformation in Grisons disputations were held at the beginning of the 16th century. The Ilanzer disputation, a barred in January 1524 religious disputation, paved the way for the Reformation in the Grisons, which developed into a mixed denominational polity. In the Ilanzer Articles from June 25, 1526 the rights of communities against the Bishop of Chur were significantly strengthened.
In the same church occurred in 1538 and the first Evangelical Synod Raetian together. Ilanz was reformed and remained there about three hundred years. In the 19th century immigrant Catholics led the Catholic faith again and built in the center of the present city in 1879 a church.
In the Grisons turmoil of the early 17th century Ilanz was on the side of the French and Venetians. For many opponents of Spain granted shelter it had to pay under the Austrian occupation. As a result of hardship and poverty, the belief in witchcraft was spreading, which for some years resulted in Ilanz to numerous witch trials.
As frets was courted because of its geopolitical position of the great powers of Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries, Ilanz adopted by the Schmid family of Grüneck active part in politics. The Schmid of Grüneck were the most important race of the city. She appeared in Ilanz first time at the end of the 14th century and died in the 18th century. In 1544 it was raised by Emperor Charles V to the peerage and was allowed the predicate " of Grüneck » carry on the eponymous castle, however, was even then in ruins. The initiative of the Schmid family of Grüneck owed Ilanz also take the help of the Reformed cities of Zurich and Bern in rebuilding the walls and gates of the jewelry from 1715 to 1717.
When the French in the late 18th century broke up the old political order and the country in 1803 came to the Confederation as Canton, Ilanz lost its importance as a federal capital and as a conference venue. But when the main town of the district Ilanz it kept a certain political significance.
In Ilanz formed in the 19th century, the Congregation of the Dominican Sisters. Since 1970, the community of sisters occupied the newly built by Walter Moser monastery Ilanz. In addition, there are in the center, opposite the town fountain a Catholic Church and two Evangelical churches: the Reformed Church Ilanz in " town" and the St. Martin's Church on the road to Val Lumnezia.
With its 1611 first printed Catechism of the Reformed pastor Stefan Gabriel founded the sursilvanische written language.
The federal census of 2000 revealed the following religious affiliation of the population of Ilanz: 63.4 % Roman Catholic, 22.5 % Protestant, 8.4% other religious groups, 3% not belonging.
- Reformed Church (Gothic, with an older tower was included ).
- Catholic Parish of the Assumption.
- Remains of town fortifications with Red Gate ( Porta Cotschna ) and Upper Gate ( Porta sura ). This is from the year 1513, the Baroque building left Gaudenzdorfer John Schmid of Grüneck build 1717.
- City Hall.
- Town houses: Casa Schmid, Casa Gronda ( 1677), Casa Carniec (since 1988 Museum Regiunal Surselva ), garden shed.
- Dominican convent Ilanz with a glass window cycle of the artist Max Rüedi.
- Church Sogn Martin, formerly the mother church of the Church District, today's stock from the 14th to the 17th century.
- Slightly above Ilanz, on the road to Ruschein, lie the ruins of the castle Grüneck.
The Porta Sura 1865
Ilanz on 14 July 1811 watercolor by Hans Conrad Escher von der Linth
By Ilanz led the Oberländerstrasse from Chur over the Lukmanierpass to Ticino. Vital to the advancement of the town was the location of a bridge across the Rhine - the first above Reichenau.
The front line of the Rhine Rhaetian Railway was opened in 1903 to the then terminus Ilanz and 1912 extended to Disentis / Muster. To date, the Ilanz train station is the main intermediate station on the line and has a high volume of goods, including through a loading station for mineral water.
Since 1940, consisted in Ilanz the Grisons College for nursing. This school is presently ( 2011) resolved in favor of the education center Health and Social Affairs in Chur.
- Leupold crowd hits, leading figure of the Baptist movement; was from 1546 schoolmaster in Ilanz and died here in 1563
- Benedict Momme Nissen, painter
- Born Balthasar von Castelberg (1812-1897), a canon of the diocese of Chur nichtresidierender and Episcopal Vicar country, in Ilanz
- Corina Casanova ( born 1956 ), since January 1, 2008 Federal Chancellor of the Swiss Confederation, born in Ilanz
- Reto Nay ( b. 1962 ) was born in Ilanz, Roman Catholic priest and exegete,
- Christian Spescha (* 1989), Swiss skier