The Ilyushin Il -18 (Russian Ильюшин Ил -18, NATO reporting name: " Coot " ) is a four-engine passenger aircraft of the Soviet Ilyushin manufacturer. The type is equipped with a retractable landing gear, turboprop engines and a pressurized cabin. The first flight took place under test pilot Vladimir Kokkinaki on July 4, 1957.
The Aeroflot called mid-1950s, a new aircraft for 75 to 100 passengers. Building on the never reached series maturity types Il -18 from 1946 Ilyushin knew, as early as 1957 boast a pattern corresponding to the requirements. The basic version of the 20 machines were produced, had space for 75 passengers. It was delivered in 1959 at the Aeroflot. Thereafter, the Il- 18B for 84 passengers was made. There were other versions that are different in style and scope. Largest variant was the Il- 18D for 122 passengers.
The Aeroflot and the Soviet Air Force used a about 600 machines of this type, 100 more were exported. After the end at the Aeroflot as a passenger aircraft a number of machines to Enlightenment Ilyushin Il -20, as flying control station Ilyushin Il -22 and submarine combat aircraft Ilyushin Il -38 was rebuilt.
In December 2008, more than 84 machines in service were located.
IL- 18 has a body of diameter 3.5 m and a pressurized cabin. Due to the accident, the Comet, the outer skin has been reinforced over 150 points. The cabin was originally designed for 75 passengers and a 5 - man crew. Baggage and cargo compartments are located under the cabin, of which the cargo space in the rear is not pressure- ventilated.
The wings are designed as trapezoid surfaces with two-piece double slotted flaps at the trailing edges and manually operated ailerons. The tail unit is designed as a conventional tail. Lateral and vertical rudders are also manually operated. In the inner wing folding tanks are installed between the wing spars. In the outer wings integral tanks are used.
The main landing gear is four wheels and moves to folding the Radgondel 90 ° to the front into the inner engine nacelles one. The nose wheel is also drawn to the front. The large gear doors are only opened during installation or extension process. Small gear doors remain open in the extended state.
The drive of the IL-18 is composed of four PTL engines, which are arranged in pods on the wings. The first production aircraft had NK -4 engines, which were later replaced by slightly modified, renamed in AI -20 engines for the Il -18A. For the propulsion, the aircraft has four-bladed propeller.
Flight testing and Records
On April 4, 1957, the first flight test pilot Vladimir Kokkinaki and the provisional designation CCCP - L5811 successes. The plant and state licensure test ran until August 27, 1958. Nearly ran parallel field testing by Aeroflot from January 1958 to April 1959 on.
The Il -18 several flying records were flown and reported to the FAI. These include two climb records on 14 and 15 November 1958 15t payload at 12,471 m and 10t payload to 13,154 m. Also, two scenic flight records were reported; was completed on 19 August 1959, 719.4 km / h for a distance of 2000 km and 15t payload. On 2 February 1960, the transport of 10t payload achieved over a distance of 5000 km at a speed of 693 km / h
Use and export
Originally, the Il -18 was planned to the Li -2 and Il -12 support or replace on the railway network of Aeroflot. On April 20, 1959, the line began service in Aeroflot. These started on this day two Il -18 from Moscow Vnukovo airport to the goals of Alma- Ata and Sochi -Adler. 1960 72 lines with Il -18 have already been served. In 1962 there were 210, 334, 1964 and 1966 over 500 destinations that were served with Il -18. In the 1960s and 1970s, about one- third of the annual transport volume of Aeroflot Il -18 was settled.
In December 1961 Il- 18W landed for the first time in Antarctica, including the fuel supply had been increased to 31000 liters. In December 1963 two machines of this type already ended. Since 1980, this route was flown several times a year with Il- 18D. End of March 1977 landed its first Il- 18 on the floating ice in the Arctic Ocean at the research station SP- 22nd
The Ilyushin Il -18 also managed a great success on the export market. So about 120 Il -18 were primarily delivered to the Warsaw Pact or Comecon. Her customers included Bulgaria, China, East Germany, Cuba, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Vietnam. Other users were Afghanistan, Algeria, Ghana, Guinea, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Mali and Mauritania.
The last Il -18 can be found today in use by the Russian Air Force, as well as in the North Korean Air Koryo, which operates a Il- 18D and Il- 18W ( early 2013 ).
Basic version, which was produced from November 1958 at the aircraft factory Moscow Chodinka in 20 copies. After several incidents, it was decided that instead of the engine NK -4 in the future the AI - 20 should come for propulsion.
From 21 series copy the more powerful engine AI -20K was fitted with the four- blade propeller AW -681 in the Il -18. This version now had an increased take-off mass and payload and was set up to pressure refueling. The cab has been increased to 84 passengers.
Had the most built from spring 1961 to 1965 variant a cabin for 100 passengers. Other changes on the car concerned a reorganization of the doors and windows to reduce noise pollution from the engines. About the seats, reading lights and air vents were installed.
Originally known as Il- 18I version was produced from 1964. This version was AI -20M engines with 3166 kW, resulting in a maximum takeoff weight of 64,000 kg. Additional tank was installed in the wing center section. The range thus increased to 6500 km, with a takeoff distance of 1370 m. By shifting the rear Druckspantes towards the stern to the enlarged cabin and found it in close seating arrangement up to 122 passengers.
This version is identical to the Il- 18D to the auxiliary tanks and was produced at the same time.
An Il- 18W was converted to a short-range version for flights of 1600 km. The passenger capacity should be increased to up to 126. Further design changes applied to control systems.
A version of the Il -18 as Air Ambulance.
Freighter version, which was created by the conversion of decommissioned passenger versions. The aircraft was equipped with a 3.5 -m-wide power-operated cargo door at the rear. In addition, the cabin floor is reinforced with aluminum and titanium plates and provided with a pulley system. Approximately 200 aircraft were converted.
Freighter version of a converted passenger aircraft such as Il- 18T, but without cargo.
Version for the detection of fish
Il- 18ZAO " cyclone "
Version of a meteorological research aircraft.
Geophysical research aircraft
Research aircraft for the aviation industry
Training aircraft for navigators