Imperative mandate

An imperative mandate is a mandate, in which a deputy to content requirements of those represented by him is bound. This may be referring to the direct will of the elected citizen of both the bond constraint of delegates at him sending Party Club subdivisions, as well as that of the deputies. He does not follow the line of him sending organization structure or the will of voters, it can be removed.


In the ancient Athenian democracies there were, apart from direct referendums, only imperative mandates.

The term originated in the late 19th century in the French Third Republic. This was merely " temporary " republic built as a reaction on the deposited Paris Commune and the Soviet democracy, first as a compromise between the rival monarchist tendencies of the legitimist and Orleanist as to the finding of an approved two flows Heir Apparent. While the ( French and international ) labor movement at that time drew the lesson from the experience of Soviet democracy, that there can be no ( real ) Republic without imperative mandate, a prohibition on the imperative mandate was enshrined in the Constitution of these " temporary " republic vice versa.

These same constitution is considered the prototype of all today recognized "representative" democracies. Consequently, almost all constitutions Western " representative " democracies explicitly prohibit any binding mandate and function carriers by orders and instructions of their constituents.

The imperative mandate is thus compared with the so-called free mandate, as it exists, for example in the German Bundestag.

MPs with an imperative mandate, are much more dependent on their constituents. However, the view is taken that it is much more difficult to come to compromise with other elected officials when excessive indulgence can immediately lead to deselection.

Imperative mandates existed in the Soviet democracy in the early days of the Soviet Union and some other short-lived revolutionary governments at this time. In the German Bundesrat, the individual members are not free in their voting behavior. Membership in the Bundesrat is not constitutionally neither a " free mandate " one more " imperative mandate ", the Federal Council members, however, act in accordance with a uniform, worked out together in the Cabinet baseline. They represent their state and may cast their votes only uniform. If they do not realize all of the voices of the relevant state are invalid according to prevailing opinion, cf the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court of the Immigration Act 2002.

In the parliament of Serbia all Members were tied to the end of 2011 with an imperative mandate of the electorate.