An industrial area, also industrial zone, industrial center, industrial location is - similar to the commercial area - an intended for production companies building area or more generally an intensely industrialized area (industrial area, industrial area ).
From the industrial estate in the true sense, an industrial area is distinguished by the location of establishments ( such as noise, dust, odor) produce a ortsunübliches degree of environmental impact, and should therefore be kept away from residential areas. It is ( mixed use ) separated enough from residential and mixed, for heavy traffic and other infrastructure developed (eg, siding, energy, waste ) and covered with special environmental requirements. Industrial areas can - locally conditioned - are still subject to further restrictions or permits.
In a geographical sense as industrial ( industrial areas ) are becoming more common and large-scale refers to all regions that have a higher than average concentration of industry. From ancient times, it therefore usually mean heavy industry, such as the Ruhr, Upper Silesia or the Donets Basin ( then in the German often specific industrial area ). Such old industrial areas have been partially de-industrialized. Industrial space is a fairly modern concept of Spatial Planning for a settlement and economic geography unit, consisting of one (or more ) " more or less coherent, partly cross-border " industrial areas.
In Germany, the industrial area is noted in the zoning plan. The permitted uses in an industrial area in § 9 of the German Land Use Ordinance ( BauNVO ) are regulated.
The land use plan and the development plan, in which the development and use is determined is set out in the Building and Zoning laws of the countries.
Country -specific regulations (selection):
- In Carinthia, are as industrial zones "those base areas set that are intended for industrial buildings and associated other physical structures of commercial small and medium-sized enterprises, from large industrial companies and industries that cause significant environmental impacts " ( Carinthian village Planning Act 1995 - K- GplG )
- In Upper Austria industrial areas are an extension of the operating building area, which also businesses and locations can be added, " based on their operating model the environment (particularly by noise, dust, odor or vibrations) significantly disturb " or "( especially by vapors, gases, explosives or radiation ) endanger " ( Oö. spatial Planning Act 1994 - Upper Austrian ROG ).
- Salzburg: Industrial area (IG ): in such are " structural works for companies that cause excessive deterioration of the environment," permitted ( Spatial Planning Act 1998 - ROG )
Industrial zone ( Indz ) is after the Austrian topographic settlement labeling also an independent settlement, which usually refers to the small structural development planning designation: This small-scale industrial areas are scattered in throughout along local and regional transport and development axes, which is also the purpose of the designation in space and building regulations.
Large-scale industrial areas, ie clusters of small-scale industrial concentration, in Austria there are traditional in Vienna and surroundings - the exemplary industrial district of Lower Austria, in the Upper Austrian central area of Linz -Wels- Lower Trauntal, in the Upper Austrian Inn Valley adjacent to the Bavarian Chemical Triangle, in the Tyrolean Inn Valley in Vorarlberg Rhine Valley, in the room Graz Basin, and in the Styrian Mur- Murz - furrow with the ancient iron industry of the Erzberg. Except for the latter, which is still a problem structurally weak region after the collapse of heavy industry in the later 20th century, the industrial zones in Austria are national economic engines that continue to act even in the neighboring countries.
Industrial area is also the proper name of many municipalities or districts of cities, such as Bayreuth, Konstanz, Landshut, Greifswald, Radevormwald, Koblenz (resolved by splitting between adjacent parts of the city on 1 January 2007 ) and Halle ( Saale) ( here: Industrial area North ). This district designations go to the predominant use of historical returns as an industrial area.