Insertion (genetics)

Insertion means the incorporation of additional nucleotides or DNA sequences in a DNA sequence with a mutation in the genetics.


An insertion leads to a frameshift ( frameshift ), unless integer multiples of three nucleotides within the meaning of triplet codons are installed. Insertion can in particular have in a frame shift means that the gene product which is encoded by the gene, and can not be properly made.

Effects similar to the insertion of nucleotide sequences, the deletion of sequences, referred to as a deletion. Indel is an umbrella term for insertions and deletions. Since the unambiguous assignment after several different insertions and deletions is problematic, these ambiguous cases are summarized without accurate classification than Indel to a category.

In a chromosome mutation a chromosome has after an insertion internally an additional section.

Inverted repeats serve to facilitate insertion of DNA into the genome of the host. These are some of the integrating viruses (eg adeno-associated virus, HIV ), or mobile genetic elements ( such as retroviruses elements, transposons or integrating bacterial plasmids ) is used.

In biochemistry and molecular biology are occasionally targeted insertions at a cloning, protein design, a vector design or even used at a random mutagenesis.


The frame shift can be explained by an example. The set

Makes sense. Each word consists of three letters, as an analogy to the triplet codon in the DNA. Similarly, the information is also available on a gene, here are the three nucleotides are always combined into a triplet codon. During the translation of three nucleotides coding for one amino acid.

With an insertion of a letter to give the three-letter grid, the importance is changed: