The term inter-zone traffic designated 1945-1973 the cross-border traffic between the four different zones of occupation in Germany, which were established in 1945 by the victorious powers of World War II.
After the military occupation of Germany civilians were allowed to leave their place of residence and its immediate environment in May 1945, initially with only one pass of the respective occupying power. In June 1945, the rail and bus service was resumed within the respective zones of occupation on many routes. The public service between the zones of occupation remained interrupted. Nevertheless, there were many travelers who crossed on foot by bike or hitchhike the largely uncontrolled borders between the zones of occupation.
On 30 June 1946, the border between the Soviet occupation zone and the western occupation zones ( American, British and French zones ) has been locked. The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SMAD ) had previously asked the Allied Control Council to terminate the demarcation line to the western zones. From the Allied Control Council was a special card, which Interzone Pass, introduced. This had to be applied for by the citizens if they wanted to travel in occupied Germany.
The pass was valid for 30 days and allowed for travel within Germany over the zone boundaries. Between the British and the American occupation zone all travel restrictions were lifted on July 23, 1946 (preparation Bizonia ). In August 1948, the French zone joined Bizonia at ( trizone ). On 13 July 1948, the Soviet military administration issued in Germany (SMAD ) a disposition, in addition to Interzone Pass needed a residence permit of the Soviet occupation authorities after the traveler between the western occupation zones and the Soviet zone of occupation.
Since 14 November 1953, the Federal Republic of Germany renounced in agreement with the Western Allies on border controls in the inter-zone traffic. On November 25, 1953, the inter-zone pass was abolished because even renounced the East German government on the issue of inter-zone passports. GDR residents must apply for exit permits from now on if they want to cross the inner German border. About 4% of traveled with approval in the West GDR citizens did not come back again.
After the construction of the Wall in Berlin it was much more difficult to obtain an exit permit. Except for missions were only a limited number of days traveling in family affairs in the West pensioners.
Already on August 5, 1945 drove the first freight train from the Ruhr to Berlin. The continuous passenger but was taken in May 1946. The first (and only until 1949 ) Interzone express train, which was reserved exclusively for foreign travelers, ran between Berlin and Osnabrück.
The rail traffic between Berlin and the Western zones was interrupted on 23 April 1948 to 12 May 1949 due to alleged construction on Soviet transfer. Since the only express couple was in the inter-zone traffic (FD 111/112 ) between Cologne and Berlin constantly overloaded, five additional express train pairs were offered on the inner German border from 10 September 1949
- FD 1/2 between Berlin and Frankfurt am Main
- FD 63/64 between Berlin and Hamburg
- FDt 65/66 as fast railcars between Berlin and Hamburg
- FD 109/110 as a second pair of trains between Berlin and Cologne
- FD 149/150 between Berlin and Munich
On August 25, 1947 Interzonenbus connection has been established by Haru between Berlin and Hanover. Also, the bus and coach has repeatedly interrupted by political crises. For example, had to adjust the Interzone transport by bus, which was also used for the procurement of spare parts, the Erfurt Transport Company in 1953.
In West Berlin, the operator of the Interzonenbus connections closed 1947 Berlin Linien Bus laminated together. Initially, 12 destinations were approached and the network expanded significantly later.
Regular air traffic between the Western and the Soviet occupation zone did not exist.
- Cross-border traffic
- Legal History of Modern Times ( Germany )