IQTA ʿ (Arabic إقطاع, DMG IQTA ʿ, allocation ') is a form of military fief, which became widespread especially in Persia, Iraq and Syria.

With increasing costs for the army of professional soldiers, the Abbasids officers went since the end of the 9th century to about, instead of a grade " concessions " ( leases ) to leave. These entitled in the allotted tracts of land for the collection of taxes, duties and other charges on your bill. For this, the officers had to maintain a certain number of soldiers and equip. As revenue declined, they received the leased lands as property. This created a landowning military caste. The power of the military was reinforced by the establishment of the Atabeg.

This freed the ruler of the costs for maintenance and equipment of the soldiers, but eluded the rulers also a large part of the tax revenue of his kingdom. Also strengthened the loyalty of the soldiers to the officers who attended for their support.

The importance of IQTA for further social and political development in the Middle East is seen very differently. The representatives of the thesis of the " Islamic feudalism " go from a soon onset of heritability and increased feudalism, as a basic owning military aristocracy took shape, the increasingly took over duties in the civil administration as well. Thereby increasing political fragmentation of the Middle East feed was provided that their peak in the 12th century reached. Local commanders in cities and fortresses possessed over their territories de facto independence.

Opponents of this theory point out that the ruler established the IQTA assignments and also certain about which officers and local notables who were IQTA areas. The officers and notables had their powers due only to the allocation of central government, ie they did not have their own power base. In the West, the feudal system introduced in principle illustrates the structure of a social organization, in contrast, was the IQTA ʿ system for the decay of the central order.