The Iranian calendar also Persian calendar or Jalali calendar ( according to Jalal al - Malik Shah Dawlah, 1055-1092 ), which is used in Iran and Afghanistan, based on the orbit of the earth around the sun, so it is a solar calendar. It is an evolution of Nowruz - Nameh - calendar ( Nowruz - Nameh, book on New Year ') of Omar Khayyam. The first day of this era ( 1 Farwardin 1) corresponds to 21 March 1079th
A year consists of 365 in leap years 366 days. In a cycle of 33 years, 8 leap years are held, usually every 4 years, at regular intervals of 33 years only after five years. Through these to the Gregorian calendar ( leap year if divisible by 4, but not a leap year, though divisible by 100 - but then leap year if divisible by 400 ). Different leap year rule, the relation of the two calendar shifts again one day or not So the first Farwardin 1338 was the last year the beginning, which fell on a March 22 (1959). Since 1960, the Iranian year begins on March 21, regularly since 1996 ( until 2028 ), however, in Gregorian leap years already on March 20.
The chronology of the Iranian calendar begins with the emigration ( flight or Hijra ) of the Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. Thus, it was on 21 March 2007 to 19 March 2008 according to the Persian calendar, the year in 1386. For data between 1 January and 20 March to 622 years, for dates between March 21 and December 31, 621 years of the western era will be deducted.
After a calendar reform that takes the Hijra to the starting point, the calendar on March 31, 1925 was introduced in Persia ( according to the Gregorian calendar). This day now corresponds to the 11 Farwardin 1304 with the addition of these hidschri schamsi ( هجری شمسی ) provided calendar calculations ( hidschri, after the Hijra reckoning '; schamsi, according to the solar year '). In 1957, he was also introduced in Afghanistan as the official calendar. However, in Afghanistan used the names of the zodiac signs as month names in Persian and Pashto. Another calendar reform in Iran (1976 ) continued as the starting point of the era, not the Hijra, but the culmination of the Persian King Cyrus 559 BC This era was established in 1978 repealed after protests by the Shiite clergy led by Prime Minister Jafar Sharif - Emami.
The first day of the year in Iranian calendar is determined by the astronomical beginning of spring, the vernal equinox (see Nowruz ). This is in the Gregorian calendar between March 19 and March 21. When the time of the spring equinox before 12:00 local time clock is Tehran, this day, the first day of new year, otherwise the next day. A year in the Iranian calendar so always goes from one vernal equinox to the next. This corresponds to relatively accurately the tropical year, but not quite. For more information, refer to the links in the Article of Mohammad Heydari - Malayeri.
The year consists of 12 months, whose name in Iran has remained unchanged for about 3000 years.
Names of months of the Iranian calendar
The month names correspond to the names of months of the zodiac.
As the Iranian, including the numanische calendar in ancient Rome began to 152 BC with the Spring Equinox, which (originally the 7th ) to December ( originally the 10th month) is reflected even in the name of the month of September.
July 24, 2006 requested Kurosh Niknam, the deputies of the Zoroastrians in Iran's parliament to officially change the name of the fifth month of Mordad in Amordad because the current name of the month did not meet the historical root. He based his request on the grounds that the original name of the month Amordad was what as much as " immortal" mean. The current name Mordad is an opposite form of the name Amordad and comes in the Persian the verb Mordan (Persian: مردن ), ie "die", which is the exact opposite of the original meaning of the month, very close.