Irun (Spanish Irun ) is a Spanish city in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. In Irun 61 113 inhabitants ( 1 January 2013) on a city area of 42 km ².
Irun is located 15 km east of the provincial capital San Sebastian directly at the Spanish- French border. To the east of the city of border river Bidasoa, which flows in the three kilometers away, the neighboring town of Hondarribia in the Bay of Biscay flows. On the opposite side of the Bidasoa is the French town of Hendaye.
The early history Iruns is unknown, but there are remains of Roman settlement. A branch of the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela (St. James ) led by Irun and ensured a steady growth. The border situation with France often caused armed conflicts and sieges. Irun was first mentioned in 1203 when Alfonso VIII of Castile the town of Hondarribia in the Carta Puebla granted the privilege of the forum.
On the Pheasant Island in the border river Bidasoa was ( always referred to as Marie -Thérèse d'Autriche in France) signed the marriage contract in 1659 between Louis XIV and the Spanish King of the Treaty of the Pyrenees and later between Louis XIV and Maria Theresa of Spain. The island is administered in half-yearly changing rhythms Hendaye and from the Spanish town of Irun.
It was only on February 17, 1766 Irun received full independence from Hondarribia, which was until then in charge of the civil and criminal jurisdiction. 1814 Irun was assigned to the province of Guipúzcoa. On August 15, 1913 Irun became a town. During the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, the city was largely destroyed during the Nationalist offensive of Guipúzcoa.
Irun is a border station between France and Spain. When crossing the border each train passengers have to change trains here, since the conventional railway lines in Spain use the broad gauge instead of the normal European standard gauge. An exception is only the EN Paris -Madrid, which is umgespurt at the border. Irun is of fast trains both the French state railway SNCF ( TGV ) and the Spanish RENFE served.
- Church of Santa María del Juncal (16th century)
- Wallfahrtsmuseum the chapel Ama Xantalen
- Baroque city hall with the San Juan column ( 1564) on the forecourt, which was given to the resistance against French invaders and symbolizes the independence of residents Iruns
Sons and daughters of the town
- Luis Regueiro (1908-1995), football player
- Santiago Urtizberea (1909-1985), football player
- Javier Irureta ( b. 1948 ), football player and coach
- Juan Manuel Garate ( b. 1976 ), cyclist
- Iñaki Descarga (born 1976 ), football player
- Julen Aguinagalde (* 1982 ), handball players
- Oier Olazábal (* 1989), football goalkeeper