Isaac Israel Hayes

Isaac Israel Hayes ( born March 5, 1832, Chester County, Pennsylvania, † December 17, 1881 in New York) was an American physician and Arctic explorer.

Kane's second Grinnell Expedition ( 1853-1855 )

Immediately after completing his studies at the University of Pennsylvania ( 1853), he participated in the search for the missing John Franklin and his men by funded as a ship's doctor in the Henry Grinnell and led by Elisha Kent Kane expedition ( so-called second Grinnell expedition ) hired. The search operation was - like all other of the numerous expeditions launched to rescue Franklin's mid-19th century - unsuccessful but contributed significantly to the study of Canadian and Greenlandic Arctic.

Starting from the Kane Basin, which chose the expedition as winter quarters, Kane and Hayes took each separate sledge journeys to the North. Hayes explored the northern part of Ellesmere Island, while his partner Kane North Greenland explored ( Washington Country and the Humboldt Glacier).

The two met on ice-free zones of the Arctic Ocean and as featured on a theory that the imagination of many adventurers and polar explorer encouraged in the following years: Hayes assumed that the constant drift of ice floes would cause one side of the frozen Kane Basin ice-free, navigable zone of the Arctic Ocean expeditions would be relatively easy getting to the North Pole. 1855 the expedition returned back to Upernavik.

Hayes ' search for the ice-free Arctic Ocean

Five years later, Hayes launched a new expedition to the Arctic, inspired to find from the then popular theory of the ice-free Arctic Ocean and obsessed by the goal, this ice-free, navigable zone of the Arctic Ocean around the North Pole. The expedition was from the outset under an unlucky star: Hayes had planned to stock up until Greenland sled dogs, a rabies epidemic raging there in 1859 but had reduced the Husky stock drastically. In addition, in Upernavik one died of Hayes ' companions, just one of the two crew members who have already had Arctic experience.

The primary goal was to push forward as far as possible in the first year to the north in order to reach the presumed ice-free zone in the next can. Bad weather prevented the United States, Hayes ' ship could at least advance to the Kane Basin, so they suggested the winter quarters at the westernmost point on Greenland, Cape Alexander, near the present settlement Etah on the peninsula named after Hayes.

Because / 61 died two thirds of the Huskies to an epidemic in winter 1860, Hayes was forced to his astronomers Sunday in August, accompanied by an Inuk to send back, to get new dogs. In this action, died of this, so that now Hayes was the last member of his crew, the Arctic experience could produce.

In the summer, Hayes broke then on to the North, on 19 May 1861, he reached after a 46 -day sleigh ride the northernmost point of this expedition Lady Franklin Bay at 81 ° 35 ' north latitude located. From there, Hayes saw the Kennedy Channel, the ice he found and believed to be identified as entering the open, navigable Arctic lake.

Hayes last Arctic trip

Back in the "civilization" itself saw Hayes with political problems: The American Civil War prevented further expedition. It was not until 1869 he was again able to leave for North Greenland, this time he traveled exclusively with Inuit, lived with them and adopted their customs. The greatest success of this last expedition Hayes ' was the discovery of the Robeson channel in 1871, which his own theory that the Kennedy channel would lead directly into the Arctic Ocean refuted.


Hayes discover generic successes were quickly surpassed by subsequent expeditions, clearly refuted his theory of the ice-free Arctic Ocean in the years that followed, but are interesting for posterity especially Hayes ' trip descriptions that excite the imagination due to the still lively descriptions.



In addition to the aforementioned Hayes Peninsula in northwest Greenland is still named in the archipelago Franz Josef Land after him the Hayes Island.