Isabella II of Spain
Childhood and youth
Isabella was the daughter of King Ferdinand VII of Spain (1784-1833) and his fourth wife, Maria Christina of Sicily. It was at the age of two years, Queen (29 September 1833). Her father had had to lift the so-called Salic law on March 29, 1830 whereby the old Castilian cognate succession was restored. Guardian was her mother.
Against the outrage of the supporters of the excluded from the succession Carlos María Isidro de Borbón (1788-1855), the Carlists, the queen mother Maria Christina secured by their association with the liberal parties of their daughter to the throne; 1840 they left Spain, but remained under the regency of General Baldomero Espartero Queen of Spain.
The "Spanish marriages "
Isabella was declared on November 8, 1843 at the age of 13 years by a decision of the Cortes for majorenn ( " mature "). The question of her marriage had a European dimension. The French King Louis Philippe I. claimed the Spanish throne for his dynasty. England, however, objected.
Queen Isabella II married on October 10, 1846, on her 16th birthday, her cousin Francis d' Assisi ( 1822-1902 ), the son of Prince Franz de Paula ( 1794-1865 ), which in turn again a son of King Charles was IV of Spain. This means that both Isabella and her husband were grandson of this king; the fathers of the spouses were brothers. Moreover, were the mothers of the spouse siblings out of the house of Bourbon - Sicily. Franz was a sickly man. At the same time Isabella's sister Luisa Fernanda (1832-1897) with the son of Louis Philippe, Duke of Montpensier (1824-1890) was married. It was expected from the marriage of the Queen because of the seemingly obvious sterility of the Prince Consort no children; the intention of the French seemed achieved.
In the government of their country, the Queen was dependent on their environment, in which the last nun Patrocinio and the director Marfori had the most influence. Repeated uprisings changed probably the ministries, but brought no improvement the Government.
On 2 February 1852, the priest Martin Merino y Gomez Isabella II wanted to kill when visiting a church. His dagger added the Queen wounds only. The assassin was caught and executed.
In September 1868 made a survey, to which a wide variety of party leaders had allied, their reign to an end, just as they were with the Emperor Napoleon III. had arranged an intervention in the Roman question in favor of the Pope; she fled to France. In their place, Francisco Serrano Domínguez was used as regent until 1870 Amadeus of Savoy ascended the Spanish throne. After his abdication in 1873, the First Republic was proclaimed in Spain.
Isabella renounced the crown on June 25, 1870 in favor of her son. Alfonso XII. ascended in 1874 by reinstatement of the monarchy to the throne. His father was officially Francis of Assisi de Borbon. However, there are doubts about the paternity. Then Isabella returned to Spain and lived partly there and partly in Paris, where she died on April 9, 1904.
Queen Isabella II had nine children:
- Ferdinand (* / † 1850)
- Maria Isabel de Borbón (1851-1931) ∞ 1868 Cajetan of Naples and Sicily ( 1846-1871 )
- María Cristina ( * / † 1854)
- Alfonso XII. (1857-1885) King of Spain
- María de la Concepción (1859-1861)
- María del Pilar (1861-1879)
- María de la Paz (1862-1946) ∞ 1883 Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria ( 1859-1949 )
- Maria Eulalia (1864-1958) ∞ 1886 Anton de Montpensier ( 1866-1930 )
- Francisco ( * / † 1866).