As ISM bands (Industrial, Scientific and Medical band ) frequency ranges are referred to, which can be used by high-frequency devices in industry, science, medicine, domestic and similar areas. Corresponding ISM devices such as microwave ovens and medical devices to short-wave radiation, the only requirements a general approval of spectrum management, for example in Germany.
The ISM bands are, although such use is not in the context of a radio service, by the Radio Regulations Radio Regulations ( Radio Regulations ) than in Articles 5138 and 5150 regulated worldwide.
Some ISM bands are also used, for example, for audio and video transmissions or data transmissions, such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth, without the need for this use of a single - frequency allocation. However, these are no ISM applications and subject to their own rules. By sharing can occur in the most commonly used bands such as the 433 MHz and 2.4 GHz band, easily lead to interference between different devices.
The use of these frequency bands for both ISM purposes as well as for radio applications is governed by the so-called general assignments. This may, in addition to general assignments for other frequencies and purposes, be viewed on the website of the Federal Network Agency.
The following frequency ranges are shown by the Radio Regulations worldwide as ISM bands:
The bands are made as follows:
- Type A: applications in these ISM bands require authorization from the respective regional authorities. These restrictions may include, for example, in terms of cooperative wireless protocols. The permit may also be granted a lump sum.
- Type B: applications in these bands do not require approval, however, have to cope with disturbances of any kind.
Individual countries have deviated from even more areas. Thus, the range of 9-10 kHz and the frequency of 150 MHz ( 149.995 to 150.005 MHz) are also released as ISM bands as in the Federal Republic of Germany. Legally otherwise provided, but often confused with an ISM band is the SRD band 863-870 MHz, which has been exclusively reserved Europe for radio communication with short range. Therefore, the device either to 433 MHz ( ISM band region 1), 868 MHz ( SRD band Europe) or 915 MHz ( ISM band region 2) are also provided for international use often work.
General have ISM and radio applications in these bands, the lowest priority. The frequency ranges are usually assigned radio services on a primary or secondary basis. For example, is the complete 433- MHz ISM band within the 70 -cm amateur radio band in which the amateur radio service has primary status. The primary and secondary users are allowed by the ISM and radio applications are not disturbed, and these applications have errors that result from the regular radio services to accept. Thus, the 433- MHz ISM band old 433 MHz equipment is no longer used in Germany for new devices ( wireless thermometer) can be used in so far as going on as they do not interfere with the amateur radio band.
Examples of uses
The ISM bands used by a plurality of ISM, and other applications:
- Radio tags (RFID, Smart Tags ) ( 13.56 MHz)
- Dielectric heating and welding of plastics (13.56 MHz)
- Excitation of CO2 gas discharges for CO2 lasers (13.56 MHz, 2.4 GHz)
- Model Radios (27 MHz, 35 MHz for model aircraft, 40.6 MHz, 2.4 GHz, partly outside the ISM bands according to German general assignment )
- Baby Monitor (27 MHz, 433 MHz)
- Wireless Thermometer ( 433 MHz, 868 MHz)
- Radio switches, such as car keys, radio outlets ( 433 MHz)
- Wireless Alarm Systems ( 433 MHz, 868 MHz)
- Wireless headphones or wireless speaker (being phased out at 433 MHz)
- Portable radios with the smallest output, Short Range Devices
- Wireless video transmission systems (2.4 GHz or 5 GHz)
- WLAN ( IEEE 802.11b / IEEE 802.11g or IEEE 802.11a ) ( 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz)
- Bluetooth ( 2.4 GHz)
- IEEE 802.15.4 (e.g., in conjunction with ZigBee ) ( 2.4 GHz)
- Microwave ovens ( 2.4 GHz)
- Short-range radar for car ( 24 GHz) (not to be confused with 24 GHz UWB radar )
- Radar motion detector (24 GHz)
- UWB automotive short-range radar (24 GHz)
- Networked wireless smoke detector ( 433 MHz)