Phyllocosmus africanus, Illustration
The Ixonanthaceae are a plant family in the order of Malpighienartigen ( Malpighiales ). They have a pantropical distribution.
It is evergreen, woody plants: trees or shrubs. The change-constant leaves are usually spirally, often asymmetrical and double-spaced, arranged on the branches. The stalked leaves are simple with smooth, serrated or dentate margin. There are small stipules present or absent.
The zymösen, racemose or paniculate inflorescences are terminal or axillary. The small, hermaphroditic flowers are radial symmetry to slightly zygomorphic and most fünfzählig (rarely cruciform ) with double perianth ( perianth ). The (rarely four) five sepals are free or fused, with the calyx tube is much shorter than the calyx teeth. There are rarely four, usually five petals present. There are five or ten or up to twenty free, fertile stamens present; they are either all the same or significantly different. Usually two or five, rarely four, carpels are fused into a superior ovaries. In each flower there is a pen with a capitate stigma. It is a discus available.
There capsule fruits are usually formed. The seeds are winged or they have an aril.
Systematics and distribution
The Ixonanthaceae family was Jules Émile Planchon in 1858 by Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel: Flora van Nederlandsch Indië erected, Volume 1, Number 2, VIII, p 494. Type genus is Ixonanthes Jack.
The taxa now placed in the Ixonanthaceae were formerly classified in the Simaroubaceae or Erythroxylaceae.
The Ixonanthaceae family has a pantropical distribution. In the Neotropics, there are two genera with about nine species. The neotropical species thrive at altitudes 0-1400 meters only in the Guiana Highlands in Guyana, French Guyana, Brazil in the Amazon region and in Bolivia.
The Ixonanthaceae family contains ( four or ) five genera with about 21 to 30 species:
- Allantospermum Forman ( Syn: Cleistanthopsis Capuron ): There are probably only two ways: Allantospermum borneense Forman: The home is Borneo.
- Allantospermum multicaule ( Capuron ) Noot. ( Syn: Cleistanthopsis multicaulis Capuron ): This species is known only from five localities in the provinces of Fianarantsoa and Toamasina in Madagascar.
- Cyrillopsis micrantha ( Steyerm. ) PEBerry & N.Ramírez: The home is Venezuela.
- Cyrillopsis paraensis Kuhlm. The home is Brazil.
- Ixonanthes reticulata Jack ( Ixonanthes chinensis ( Hook. & Arn ) Champ, Emmenanthus chinensis Hook & Arn, Ixonanthes cochinchinensis Pierre. .. . ): This species is in China, in northeastern India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand Vietnam and widespread.
- Ixonanthes khasiana Hook. f: She's Himalayan foothills.
- The Ixonanthaceae in APWebsite family. (Sections systematics and description)
- Ixonanthaceae at DELTA. ( Description section )
- Paul JM Maas & Maas -van de Kamer Hiltje, 2012: Neotropical Ixonanthaceae at Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. (Sections systematics and description)