Izamal on the map of Yucatán
Izamal ( in Mayathan Itzmal, place of iguanas ) is a historically important town in the state of Yucatan in Mexico. The city's history goes way back in the pre-Hispanic period, are obtained from the large pyramid-like buildings and retained its importance to the present day. The city received the tourist award Pueblo Mágico.
Pre-Hispanic time and preserved buildings
The earliest traces of Indian city date back to the Middle Preclassic. In Early Klassikum the city reached an area of 10 km ², which must be thought of a loose construction. From Izamal led two Sacbes to the places ( and ruins ) Aké in nearly 30 km to the west and largely covered by a modern infrastructure, according to Kantunil in the south. A small piece of the road to Aké, mostly as a low elevation with slightly different growth is identifiable on the ground and runs just parallel to the modern city, was about 3.25 km to the west of the city center restored. A third road of 1 km length runs in a southwesterly direction to a pyramid platform called Chaltunhá the modern suburbs. In the center of the modern town are several large and high platforms that contributed eist the temple important deities. The structure of the city is similar to T'ho, the prehispanic Mérida. The pyramid platforms ( except the first two ) and other pre-Hispanic buildings around the gardens of the houses and are not visible from the streets.
P'ap'hol - Chaak
This building became the foundation of the current Franciscan convent. The original form of this pyramid structure is uncertain, because it has been turned into the court of the monastery church, therefore rises several meters above the level of the streets. The case built additions in the form of ramps have certainly nothing to do with the original shape. In order to harmonize the church and convent to the height of the atrium, high wall constructions were necessary especially on the south side of the church.
Kinich Kak Moo
This pyramid is the largest platform of Izamal with side lengths of 200 m and a height of platform of 36 m, it comes from the Middle Klassikum. The main access to the platform is from the south side, where a monumental megalithic staircase of huge carved stone blocks is far vorgeschuht. Of the other sides steep but not monolithic stairs lead up to the platform surface. On the northern edge of the pyramid platform, a pyramid (50 x 30 m) rises with slightly rounded corners and 10 steps, which is therefore considered to be post- classical, several centuries later than the pyramid platform. The complex was explored in the 1990s under the leadership of Luis Millet and restored.
In this pyramid platform is a rather minor construction on the west side of a large square vermutbaren between the two aforementioned pyramid platforms. On one of the buildings John Lloyd Stephens and his illustrator Frederick Catherwood saw in 1842 a large stucco mask, as it is not uncommon for early classic heritage of the Maya. Forty years later, Désiré Charnay took yet another mask and other stucco decorations. From everything nothing remains. Excavations and reconstructions have not yet taken place here. From here, the sacbe off after Aké.
The 21 m high right platform ( at Calle 26 located ) was a temple to the god Itzamná. The northern and eastern side have been restored and show a five -stage structure.
A largely excavated complex of nested structures in several construction phases at the Calle 24 located.
In the last centuries before the Spanish conquest Izamal belonged to the Principality of Ah Kin Chel, the 70 km ranged inland from the central part of the north coast of Yucatan. Its capital was Tekoh.
The area of Ah Kin Chel had submitted without struggles and resistance of the Spaniards, the numerous population was greatly reduced by two epidemics. In 1549 a Franciscan monastery was built on the platform of the most important pre-Hispanic pyramid. The time of the Conquest relatively small town was greatly expanded in the mid-16th century through the resettlement of scattered over the surrounding population that still lived for some time in politically separate districts. In Izamal also auxiliary troops of the Spanish from Central Mexico settled in a small village called La Concepcion, which still preserved their native language for several decades.
Izamal after the independence of Mexico was one of the most important cities in the Yucatán. This is reflected in the fact that was represented in the flag of Yucatán Izamal only briefly used as a star as a green field as Merida, Valladolid, Tekax and Campeche. The Spanish settlement was raised in 1823 in the rank of a villa, 1841 in a ciudad, which they lost in 1923, to win it again until 1981.