From 1893 to 1896 he studied with Martin Marsick at the Paris Conservatoire.
To earn his living, he played in the Parisian Café Rouge violin, where he was discovered by the conductor Édouard Colonne, who hired him for his orchestra. There he made his debut in 1898 as soloist with such success that he was fifty-four concerts this season. After that, he appeared in all musical centers in Europe and 1903 in the United States.
With his two brothers, one of which pianist, the other was a cellist, he founded a successful trio. Together with Pau Casals and Alfred Cortot he made in the years 1906 to 1933 the most famous trio in music history.
With Marguerite Long, he founded in 1943 the Long - Thibaud Competition for violinists and pianists. Eugène Ysaÿe dedicated to him his second solo sonata for violin.
Thibaud was born on September 1, 1953 in a plane crash on Mont Cemet in the French Alps killed. His Stradivarius violin has been destroyed.