Jasmund is a peninsula in the north- east of the island of Rügen. In the eastern part of the peninsula of about 30 square kilometers, the Jasmund National Park was created in 1990. The Peninsula is known primarily for its chalk cliffs.
The Jasmund peninsula was after the Thirty Years' War, a time in the possession of the Swedish general Carl Gustav Wrangel, the Count De la Gardie, from whom it purchased Prince Wilhelm Malte I. Putbus.
The image of the landscape characterize glacial deposits. Sinks are often occupied by small lakes. The most striking chalk cliffs is the 118 meter high king chair. The Wissower jack, another well-known Cretaceous, slipped on 24 February 2005 almost completely into the sea, so that was left of this attraction only slightly. Two-thirds of the Jasmund National Park, covering a wide range of forest types with their typical habitats. Particularly impressive is the forest on the coastal slopes. Here are spreading different forms of rare woody plants, such as wild pear, wild apple, yew and ivy from. In the back of the Great Stubbenkammer the Stubnitz, a 7.5 km long and up to four kilometers wide Buchenwald, the city is located at the southern end of Sassnitz is. The remaining space is spread across Moore, beach, meadows, pastures, and residential areas. Another incision of the chalk mountains, the little Stubbenkammer, located east of the king chair, is not so high, but almost even steeper and can look out from his overgrown with trees and bushes edge almost straight down to the sea. Near the king chair is also the Herthasee ( Borg or Black Lake ), which has a diameter of about 150 m and is 11 m deep. Westward encounters a castle wall to the lake, which includes an oval square and has a circumference of 300 m and is bordered to the west almost in a quadrant of a second, but irregular wall. It has this wall, the 136 m above sea level. NN is held for the remains of Hertha castle and then laid the scene of Hertha or Nerthus saga, the Wall is much more likely a castle and temple wall from the time of the Slavic colonization of Rügen from the 7th century, perhaps the temple the Czernoglowy enclosed.
Jasmund was overprinted during the last glaciation of domestic glaciers. You stauchten the upcoming underground chalk and older glacial layers on to a ridge. It projects today with the Piekberg, the highest elevation of Ruegen, 161 m above the Baltic Sea and has a highly structured relief. About 14,000 years ago, the glaciation ended in the area of Ruegen. Below initially spread from a cold steppe, later birch and pine forests, then mixed oak forests. During the last 1000 years beech forests prevailed in the area. In endorheic valleys formed lakes, which silted up and became bogs. About 6000 years ago, the sea level rose to its present level. Uplands as Jasmund became islands. Due to the erosive action of waves and currents created steep banks, which dominate the landscape today.
The history of nature conservation on Jasmund dates back to the 16th century. The first aim was purely economically justified protection of forests as a source of raw materials. Against this background, a first timber order was issued in 1586. She stands at the beginning of centuries of efforts to achieve sustainable forest management. At the beginning of the 20th century threatened the destruction of the steep bank by the chalk degradation. This called nature lovers on the plan and 1929, the Jasmund Nature Reserve was reported by police regulations. This was followed in 1986, the nature reserve Quoltitz in the western part of today's national park. With the political change in the GDR in the field was the danger of unbridled tourism marketing. 1990, as part of the National Park program of the GDR, finally could the Jasmund National Park to be established. Thus, an idea found its implementation, which was first formulated in 1964 by Lebrecht Jeschke.
The active steep banks of the Jasmund peninsula represent the largest geological event in northern Germany dar. Due to the storm exposed position Jasmunds are the bluffs active up to the present, that is, it will always find erosion processes occur that shift the coastline gradually into the hinterland, and prevent that a vegetative cover can spread. So here rock layers are always open, the other location is limited not accessible or only selectively and in time.
For a beach walk is well not only on the white chalk with layers of black flint stones. Also boulder clay, which have been deposited by Ice Age glaciers, and sandy deposits of meltwater build on the ground. With the glacial boulders, among them some of the largest boulders of Ruegen, to find documents for many eras of the geological past of the Scandinavian - Baltic region.
By calcareous spring water formed on Stubbenhörn a Travertinkaskade, which gained some notoriety; However, after the cessation of the sources mid-20th century the Travertinbildung came to a standstill.