Jean Hamburger

Jean Hamburger ( born July 15, 1909 in Paris, † February 1, 1992 in Paris) was a French physician and essayist, in Paris, the world's first successful kidney transplant from a living donor performed in 1953 and was elected to the Académie française in 1985.


Doctor and a specialist in kidney disease

Hamburger began after the school first a study of the sciences at the University of Paris Sorbonne and then medicine. After graduating he became assistant physician in 1936 and 1945, hospital doctor, before 1949 a physician at Children's Hospital Hôpital Necker - Enfants malades was after passing the Agrégation. In 1947, he was founder and president of the Fondation pour la recherche médicale (FRM). There he led in 1953 the world's first successful kidney transplant from a living donor by which, however, survived the 16 -year-old patient who received a kidney from his mother only briefly.

Also in 1953, he submitted an initial concept for the establishment of intensive care medicine in France and created another concept for Nephrology for the study of the kidneys and kidney disease. 1955 Hamburger lead the first dialysis in France. He then became 1958 professor at the Department of Nephrology, Hôpital Necker, and held this position until 1982. At the same time, he was head of a research laboratory of the Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM ) and the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS ) for the study of the kidneys and transplant immunology. During this time he succeeded in 1959, the first successful kidney transplant between identical twins, and finally in 1962 between non- twins. In the following years he made fundamental research on immunology in renal disease, transplant immunology, and to autoimmune disease.

Literary works and honors

Since 1972, wrote Hamburger, who had already written a variety of medical textbooks to kidney diseases, essays and books that deal with the human condition, the causes of the fragility of the modern world, the search for a balance between biology and spiritual needs of humanity and the employed borders and the censorship of knowledge. In addition, he advocated for the use of the French language in medicine and wrote a French-speaking medical dictionary. In 1972 he was awarded the Prix Femina Vacaresco that was previously awarded, among others, Marguerite Yourcenar.

In 1974 he became a member of the Académie des sciences, which he was president from 1981 to 1982, and in 1975 a member of the Académie nationale de Médecine. In addition, he was not only a member of foreign academies, but also an honorary doctor of many foreign universities. In addition, he was active as Chairman of the Board and the Science Council of the Palais de la Découverte, as well as a member of the advisory boards of the Legion of Honour, the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres and the Musée de l' Homme.

Hamburg, the Cino del Duca Prix and the Prix Balzac received in 1979, also was a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour and of the Ordre national du Mérite and Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.

On April 18, 1985, he was chosen as the successor to the 1975 " resigned " Pierre Emmanuel as a member of the Académie française, and took there until his death the fourth arm chair ( fauteuil 4).


  • Les Migraines, 1935
  • Physiology de l' innervation rénale, 1936
  • Petite encyclopédie médicale, 1942
  • Traité de pathology médicale, 3 volumes, 1948
  • Nouveaux procédés d' exploration du purely functional calculus, 1949
  • Le Retentissement humoral de l' insuffisance rénale, 1951
  • Métabolisme de l' eau, 1952
  • Techniques de réanimation médicale, 1954
  • L' insuffisance rénale, 1961
  • Conseils aux étudiants en médecine, 1963
  • Traité de nephrology, 2 volumes, 1966
  • La transplantation rénale, 1971
  • Structure and function of the kidney, 1971
  • La Puissance et la fragilite, 1972
  • Dictionnaire de médecine, préface et direction, 1975
  • L' Homme et les Hommes, 1976
  • Néphrologie, 2 volumes, 1979
  • Demain, les autres, 1979
  • Un jour, un homme ..., 1981
  • Introduction au langage de la médecine, 1982
  • Le journal d' Harvey, 1983
  • La raison et la Passion, 1984
  • Le Dieu foudroyé, 1985
  • Le Miel et la ciguë, 1986
  • Monsieur Littre, 1988
  • La plus belle aventure du monde, 1988
  • Et quelques autres histoires Zouchy, 1988
  • Dictionnaire boardwalk, 1989
  • La Puissance et la fragilite. Vingt ans après, 1990
  • Le Livre de l' aventure humaine, 1990
  • Les Belles Imprudences, Réflexion sur la condition humaine, 1991

External links and sources

  • Short biography and list of works of the Académie française (French)
  • Physician ( 20th century )
  • Author
  • Non-fiction
  • Essay
  • Member of the Académie française
  • Member of the Legion of Honour ( Grand Officer )
  • Support of the French National Order of Merit ( Grand Officer )
  • Carrier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres ( Commander )
  • Frenchman
  • Born in 1909
  • Died in 1992
  • Man