Speight grew up in North Carolina. There also began his political career when he was elected in 1820 to the House of Representatives of the State, whose spokesman he was. From 1823 to 1827, he later served on the Senate of North Carolina.
In 1828 he competed for the Democrats for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives and was successful. Speight was confirmed by the voters of the fourth congressional district then washed three times before he did not run after eight years' term of office in 1836.
A little later moved to Plymouth Speight ( Lowndes County) in the state of Mississippi. There he remained politically active and was in 1841 elected to the State Senate, where he remained until 1844. From 1842 to 1843 he was President of the Senate, effectively Lieutenant Governor. Finally, he returned to his successful election in 1845 as a U.S. Senator in Congress, where he has chaired two committees. Jesse Speight died but still during his tenure in May 1847 in Columbus, where he was also buried.