Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis

Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis [ ʒoakĩ maɾiɐ maʃadu dʒi asis ] ( born June 21, 1839 in Rio de Janeiro, † September 29, 1908 ) was a Brazilian author of novels, short stories and poems. He is the most important figure in Brazilian literature and had great influence on the literature of Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries.


Portuguese and African descent, was born in a poor family in Rio de Janeiro Machado de Assis. His father, Francisco José Machado de Assis, was a worker. His mother, Leopoldina Machado de Assis, he lost very early.

He grew up in Rio de Janeiro in the district Livramento. He, the mulatto, had not the means to a formal education and learned why, where and when he could. The age of 15, he published his first poem, Ela (you). It appeared in the newspaper Marmota Fluminense on 12 January 1855.

The following year he joined the government printing workshops in the translator teaching. Later he worked as a proofreader. As early as 1859 he began to write as a journalist at Correio Mercantil, and 1860 at the Diário do Rio de Janeiro.

In 1869 he married Carolina Augusta Xavier de Novais, the sister of his friend, in his newspaper, he also worked, which was, however, three months earlier, died. His wife told him the classics of Portuguese and English.

From 1872, he worked as First Secretary in the Ministry of Agriculture, Trade and Public Works. In 1889 he was appointed Director of Trade in this ministry.

With his friends José Lúcio de Mendonça Veríssimo and he worked in the journal Revista Brasileira. In this intellectual group the idea of ​​the creation of the Brazilian Academy of Letters was born which was founded in 1879, becoming its first president Machado de Assis.

Throughout his life he wrote in all literary genres. His early works are classical, romantic poems and novels. From the 1880s, his work can be fit into any genre. The characters of his novels bring his view saying that we will get nowhere by simply following the rules of the game. Many of these characters gain to lose tomorrow.

Autobiographical trains are very hard to find in his works; It was also his view that to write a good book, by omitting things, this should stimulate the imagination of the reader. Is, therefore, little is known about the personal life of the main character in the Brazilian literature.


Volumes of poetry

  • Crisálidas. , 1865.
  • Falenas. In 1870.
  • Americanas. In 1875.
  • Ocidentais. In 1880.
  • Poesias completas. In 1901.


  • Ressurreição. In 1872.
  • A mão ea luva. In 1874.
  • Helena. In 1876.
  • IAIA Garcia. In 1878.
  • Memórias de Brás Cubas Póstumas. 1881
  • German: The Memoirs of Bras Cubas retrospective. Afterword by Susan Sontag, translation: Wolfgang Kayser. Manesseplatz library of world literature, Zurich 2003, ISBN 3-7175-2018-0
  • German: Dom Casmurro. Afterword by Kersten Knipp, translation: Marianne Gareis, Zurich, 2013, Manesseplatz library of world literature, ISBN 978-3-7175-2300-0.
  • German: Dom Casmurro. Translation: Harry Kaufmann, Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt 2008
  • Esaú e Jacó. In 1904.
  • Memorial de Aires. 1908
  • German: Diary of farewell. Translation: Berthold Zilly, publishing peace Auer Press, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-932109-55-3

Collections of short stories

  • Contos Fluminense. 1870
  • Histórias da Meia Noite -. In 1873.
  • Papéis Avulsos. In 1882.
  • Histórias this data. In 1884.
  • Várias Histórias. In 1896.
  • Páginas Recolhidas. , 1899.
  • Relíquias da Casa Velha. In 1906.


  • Hoje avental, Amanhã luva. In 1860.
  • Queda que as mulheres para os TEM Tolos. , 1861.
  • Desencantos. , 1861.
  • O caminho da porta. , 1863.
  • O protocolo. , 1863.
  • Teatro. , 1863.
  • Quase ministro. , 1864.
  • Tu, só tu amor puro. In 1880.
  • Não Consultes médico. In 1896.
  • Licao de Botanica. In 1906.