Johann Augustus Eberhard

Johann August Eberhard (also: Eberhardt; * August 31, 1739 in Halberstadt, † January 6, 1809 in Berlin) was a German philosopher.


Eberhard studied in Hall theology, philosophy and classical philology. In 1763 he was vice-principal at the high school and preacher, preacher in 1774 in Charlottenburg in Halberstadt. He entered into a close relationship with the Berlin Enlightenment, especially to Friedrich Nicolai and Moses Mendelssohn.

1772 appeared his first publication, New Apology of Socrates, or investigation of the blessedness of the Gentiles, by the already enlarged edition appeared in 1773. He criticized here on behalf of a rational belief system, dogmas of orthodox theology, including the doctrine of collective Damn awareness of the Gentiles as well as the doctrine of eternal punishment in hell. Eberhard based his life on the philosophy of Leibniz and Christian Wolff, criticized in this work but also the Leibnizian theodicy because of the thesis of eternal damnation. Lessing threw Eberhard 1773 in two essays before, to have misunderstood Leibniz ( Leibniz of the eternal punishments and Des Andreas Wissowatius ' objections against the Trinity ); Eberhard responded in 1778 with a second volume of Socrates.

1776 published Eberhard Scripture General Theory of thought and feeling, which was awarded in the same year with the price of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Mainly due to the success of this font was Eberhard 1778 as professor of philosophy at the then-leading Prussian university, the University of Halle. Eberhard was the successor of Georg Friedrich Meier, who in turn was the successor of Christian Wolff; Kant had previously rejected the call for Hall. Eberhard became one of the most important representatives of the Leibniz - Wolffian philosophy (the " Halle school philosophy " ) and published writings on all areas of philosophy: the rational theology to moral philosophy, aesthetics, epistemology, the philosophy of history. 1786, he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin.

Eberhard 1789 published a series of seven essays on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, in which he defended the Leibniz - Wolffian philosophy of Kant against attacks. He criticized Kant's account of the narrowness of theoretical knowledge and tried to show that one can find the truth of Kant's philosophy already in Leibniz. Kant responded in 1790 with the Scriptures About a discovery after all new critique of pure reason is to be made superfluous by an older one.

At the time in 1797, a work of Kant by the Berlin censors refused ( Renewed question whether the human race in the resistant progression for the better was ), Eberhard pleaded in a report of 1798 for the unabridged publication (Kant published the font in the same year as the second section the dispute of the faculties ). Likewise, Eberhard 1799 defended the so-called atheism spruce against the charge of atheism, with the writings about the God of Prof. spruce and the idols of his opponents as well as attempt an accurate determination of the dispute point between Prof. spruce and his opponents. Eberhard criticized in his defense at the same time Fichte's philosophy - because of the separation of knowledge assets - why spruce sat against Eberhard's defense to defend.

Christian Wolff and Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten Berlin reconnaissance Moses Mendelssohn and Friedrich Nicolai have to Eberhard's views besides Leibniz, acted, the latter also a commemorative volume (Berlin 1810) wrote to him.

Eberhard -known student was Friedrich Schleiermacher.

Works (selection)

  • New Apology of Socrates or examination of the doctrine of the bliss of the Gentiles. Hildesheim: Olms, Nachdr the Ed Berlin, Stettin, Nicolai. Edited by Walter Sparn.
  • Ethics of reason (Berlin 1781, 2nd edition 1786). Reprint Frankfurt: Atheneum Publishers in 1971.
  • Theory of the Fine Arts and Sciences (Berlin 1783, 3rd edition 1790);
  • General History of Philosophy (Berlin 1788, 2nd edition 1796);
  • Handbook of aesthetics for educated readers of all classes. (Hall 1803 to 1805, 4 ​​vols, 2nd edition 1807-20 );
  • The spirit of primitive Christianity. (Hall 1807 to 1808, 3 vols ). Hildesheim: Olms, Nachdr of Ed Hall, Renger, 1807 Edited by Walter Sparn. .
  • Miscellaneous Writings. (Hall 1784-88, 2 vols ).
  • General theory of thinking and feeling. Nachdr d ed Berlin, Voss, 1776 Hildesheim.; Zurich; New York: Olms, 1984 ISBN 3-487-07431-1.
  • As to the character of the Enlightenment of a nation: a lecture held at Halle ... 11 Feb 1783 Hall, 1783.
  • About the value of the sensitivity, especially in regard to the novels. Hall 1786
  • Postscript about the moral value of sensibility. Hall 1786
  • Brief outline of metaphysics: with regard to the current state of philosophy. Hall 1794
  • Sitne adspectabile quid et ipsa from remuneratione diversum, exspectandum the Instantis reditus Christ iudicium ad extremum? . Hall 1796
  • Is the Augsburg Confession a religious requirement of the Lutheran Church? A historical investigation to reassure the governments ... / In letters of an old Lutheran preacher [ie Johann August Eberhard ] to his younger brethren. Hall 1797
  • Attempt a more exact determination of the dispute point between Prof. spruce and his opponents. Hall 1799
  • About the God of Professor Spruce and the idols of his opponents: A calm examination of his appeal to the audience in some letters. Hall 1799
  • Wilhelm Ludwig Gottlob von Eberstein: attempt at a history of the progress of philosophy in Germany from the end of the last century up to present time. Johann August Eberhard (ed.). Hall 1799
  • Johann August Eberhard's attempt at a general German synonymy in a critical- philosophical book of the words of similar meaning words of the High German dialect. (Hall 1795-1802, 6 vols; continued and expanded by Maass, 1818-21, 12 vols, 4th ed by Meyer, Leipzig, 1853, 2 vols );
  • Johann August Eberhard 's Synonymisches pocket dictionary of the German language for all who want to express themselves correctly in this language. Besides a detailed statement to useful Gebrauche thereof. (Hall 1802; 13th edition of Lyon and Wilbrandt, Leipzig 1882).
  • Seven essays on criticism of Kant, published in the Philosophical Magazine of 1789, in: Immanuel Kant: The dispute with Johann August Eberhardt. Edited by Marion Lauschke and Manfred Zahn. Hamburg: In my 2003, pp. 1-107, ISBN 3-7873-1647-7
  • About constitutions and their improvement: [ a handbook for German citizens from the educated classes ]. Nachdr the Ed Berlin, Voss, 1793 and 1794 / ed. by Walter Sparn. Hildesheim; Zurich; New York: Olms- Weidmann, 2002 ISBN 3-487-11607-3.
  • Leibniz biographies. (Included: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz Lord Frey / Johann August Eberhard - Life of Lord Frey of Leibnitz / Johann Georg von Eckhart. ). Hildesheim; Zurich; New York: Olms, 1982 ISBN 3-487-07239-4.
  • Observationes in aliquot locos Prophetarum minorum. Hall, 1805.